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JAPAN: RETURN TO ROOTS. CHANGE AND RESISTANCE STRONG ARMY , STRONG COUNTRY INTO THE FUTURE . CHANGE AND RESISTANCE. Many of the changes that took place were labelled Westernization, the adoption of Western ways and ideas The motto of this movement was “Civilization and Enlightenment”

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japan return to roots
JAPAN: RETURN TO ROOTS

CHANGE AND RESISTANCE

STRONG ARMY , STRONG COUNTRY

INTO THE FUTURE

change and resistance
CHANGE AND RESISTANCE
  • Many of the changes that took place were labelled Westernization, the adoption of Western ways and ideas
  • The motto of this movement was “Civilization and Enlightenment”
  • One goal of the movement was to change the unequal treaties with western countries
  • Cultural changes were easiest to see in the poorest cities
  • foreign books and magazines became available, and in 1871 daily newspapers were launched
  • Newspapers were placed in public reading rooms so citizens could learn about the changes in Japanese society
change and resistance1
CHANGE AND RESISTANCE
  • Western took issue with some typical Japanese behaviours, for example
    • In warm weather Japanese working men wore only loincloths. The governor of Yokohama ordered all labourers to wear a shirt or tunic
    • In 1872, the Japanese government passed a law to prohibit tattooing, including that done by the Ainu
    • Public bathing, a revered Japanese ritual, shocked proper Victorians. Public baths were closed or modified
  • When officials at the Imperial court realized foreign officials were not in the habit of taking off their shoes, they replaced tatami mats with carpet
  • The emperor had to learn how to shake hands
  • European style food was served at the emperor’s receptions
change and resistance2
CHANGE AND RESISTANCE
  • The government urged Japanese men to abandon their kimonos for trousers and suit coats
  • By the 1870s, all prominent Japanese men wore their hair cut short, some grew beards and moustaches
  • The Japanese military wore Western style uniforms
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A7r_f-OMG1M&feature=related&
change and resistance3
CHANGE AND RESISTANCE
  • Deer Cry Pavilion, was a fancy European style building in which Western visitors were entertained
  • In the hall the buffet tables were laid out with imported European gourmet food
  • Cuban cigars, billiards were intermeshed with French orchestras playing operettas and German polkas and waltzes
  • Foreign diplomats would socialize with the Japanese but had no appetite to reopen the original treaties
  • The Deer Cry Pavilion was shut down as part of an anti-Western backlash
change and resistance4
CHANGE AND RESISTANCE
  • The rapid changes had produced tensions in Japan
  • The Japanese were a proud and independent people and their traditions, customs and beliefs were very important to them
  • The motto “Civilization and Enlightenment” was dropped and replaced by “Western science and Japanese essence”
  • Two of the items essential for unity in the West, Christianity and democracy, had little hold in Japan at this time
  • Most Western countries had constitutions which describes parts of the government and the powers given to each part
  • They often include a bill of rights and freedoms
change and resistance5
CHANGE AND RESISTANCE
  • a constitutional study commission was sent abroad and it decided that the Prussian constitutional model was best
  • Highlights of the new constitution
    • The emperors powers were described as “sacred and inviolable” meaning not to be challenged
    • Japanese citizens were given rights to free speech, privacy, property, movement, legal and religion
    • An Imperial Diet consisted of a House of Peers (nobility or royalty) and a House of representatives (elected by the people)
  • Putting it into practice
  • Political parties were discouraged and freedom of speech and the press lasted only a few years
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQzNkWUwoWc&
strong army strong country
STRONG ARMY, STRONG COUNTRY
  • The Meiji leaders looked at the powerful countries of the West and saw three commonalities
    • Control over foreign colonies or territories
    • Military power to defend those territories
    • A strong and independent economy
  • The Japanese began a deliberate path to strengthen their military
  • The first step was the Conscription Law of 1873
  • It required all males to serve in the military for three years and to do reserve duty for four more years
  • The second step was to take over several smaller island territories including the Ryukyu, Bonin and Kurile Islands
strong army strong country1
STRONG ARMY, STRONG COUNTRY
  • The closest country to Japan on the mainland was Korea, the distance between the two is less than 200 km
  • Korea is strategically important because it borders both Russia and China
  • The Sino-Japanese war was between China and Japan and was quick and decisive lasting from Aug 1894-Apr 1895
  • Japan’s superior military gave it an easy victory, and the resulting treaty gave Japan
    • the rights to Formosa(modern Taiwan)
    • China paid an indemnity for Japan’s losses
    • Japan special economic rights
strong army strong country2
STRONG ARMY, STRONG COUNTRY
  • The Japanese victory worried Western powers
  • Russia, France and Germany stepped in and made changes to the peace treaty
  • They forced Japan to give up Liaotung Peninsula, which was promptly taken over by the Russians
  • They also wanted the same economic considerations with China that Japan had
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=16sdjIpZNVc&
strong army strong country3
STRONG ARMY, STRONG COUNTRY
  • In 1904 the Japanese launched a surprise attack on Russian ships in Port Arthur
  • War erupted shortly but the Russian efforts were severely hampered by the Bolshevik Revolution back home
  • Russia was forced into a peace negotiations rather than continuing the war
  • Five years after the war Japan annexed Korea with very little protest from the Western powers
  • Japan was now recognized as an imperial power
the end of an era
THE END OF AN ERA
  • When Emperor Meiji died in 1912, his leading general and the general’s wife committed junshi, ritual suicide after the death of one’s lord
  • Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on Dec 7, 1941 bringing the United States into direct conflict during the war of the Pacific
  • On August 6, 1945 the United States dropped the nuclear bomb on Hiroshima and three days later of Nagasaki
  • On September 2, 1945 Japanese officials signed the surrender papers aboard the USS Missouri
  • In 1947 the new Japanese Constitution contained Article 9
  • It called for Japan to be an unarmed nation that would never again be a military threat
japan post war
JAPAN POST WAR
  • Many feel Article 9 which did not permit expenses on the military has had a large role in the post war economic miracle of Japan
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2SnnWZ1YTL4&
  • Historian Ken Henshall points to the following keys to the Japanese success
    • The ability of the Japanese to learn from others and to adapt these borrowings
    • The emphasis on learning and education
    • The Japanese focus on making their country powerful and respected in the world
    • The willingness of the Japanese to work hard an make sacrifices for the greater good of the group and society
japan today
JAPAN TODAY

HIGH SPEED RAIL IN JAPAN

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SuOx7SleTlc
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8FdJhBzTTx4
  • A NEW KIND OF LEADER
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0RUtE5eTrkE&safe=active
  • POP CULTURE IN JAPAN
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rgAdsbrJ_m0
  • THE JAPANESE ECONOMY TODAY
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vkbs6Zjw578