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AGRICULTURE. The Beginning. Neolithic Revolution Changes to life include: Reliable food supplies, Increase in total human population, Job Specialization, Patriarchy Vegetative Planting-cloning existing plants (stems and roots) Southeast Asia

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AGRICULTURE


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    1. AGRICULTURE

    2. The Beginning • Neolithic Revolution • Changes to life include: • Reliable food supplies, Increase in total human population, Job Specialization, Patriarchy • Vegetative Planting-cloning existing plants (stems and roots) • Southeast Asia • Seed Agriculture-planting with seeds (typical now) • Ethiopia, Western India

    3. Vegetative Agricultural Hearths

    4. Seed Agricultural Hearths

    5. Columbian Exchange • Remember what happened? • Trade diffused crops but topography and climate determined success of transplants • Food in the Western Hemisphere was completely different from Eastern Hemisphere until the Exchange • Potatoes from Andes of South America to Ireland • Rice still more common in Asia, Beans, Squash, Corn in the Americas

    6. Second Agricultural Revolution • Pre-Industrialization in England and Western Europe • Use of fertilizers, improved collars for plow animals, crop rotation, bred better livestock, Seed Drill • Enclosure-blocking off, fencing in land

    7. Different Agriculture • Commercial Agriculture: production of food surplus, most crops destined for sale to people outside farmer’s family. Practiced mostly in MDC’s-farmers rarely sell directly to consumer but sell to food processing companies-called AGRIBUSINESS • Subsistence Agriculture: production of only enough food to feed the farmer’s family, with little or no surplus to sell. Practiced mostly in LDC’s.

    8. Compare Subsistence to Commercial • Percentage of Farmers in the Labor Force • Use of Machinery • Farm Size

    9. Subsistence Farming • Intensive Subsistence: Yields a large output per acre but still only subsistence. • Almost half the world’s population engaged in this type of farming. • Most prevalent in East and South Asia in wet or lowlands producing rice, wheat (China), maize, millet, peas and beans. • Labor intensive type of Agriculture-lot of people, little capital, work by hand

    10. Wet Rice Terrace-Indonesia

    11. World Rice Production

    12. Subsistence Farming • Shifting Cultivation (Slash and Burn): Destroys environment, farmers continually moving to slash/burn new land . Burned land is fertile at first but then rapidly depletes. • Practiced in rain forest zones of Central and South America, West Africa by people of small villages who are guided by a village chief or council • Farming all done by hand

    13. Slash and Burn Guatamala

    14. Subsistence Farming • Pastoral Nomadism: Follows a herd, not sedentary. • Herds are domesticated sheep, goats, cows, reindeer, cows, camels, and horses • Nomadism is dictated by herds need for pasture (food) • Found in Central Eurasia, desert areas of Arabian Peninsula • Animals provide primary subsistence

    15. Pastoral Nomads in Iran

    16. Subsistence Agriculture-More! • Extensive Subsistence Agriculture: large areas of land, minimal labor per land unit • Pastoral Nomadism and Slash and Burn • Intensive Subsistence Agriculture: cultivation of small land plots, lots of labor, yields per unit and population densities high

    17. Commercial Agriculture-Finally! • Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming: most common form of agriculture in the US-farmers grow crops and raise livestock and feed crops to animals (beef, milk, eggs) • Practice Crop Rotation (cycles-cereal grains, to corn, to soybeans) • Dairy Farming: close to urban areas (have to be close-called the milkshed) sell to wholesalers not directly to consumers • Labor intensive farming-feeding and milking cows

    18. Commercial Agriculture-More! • Grain Farming: 3 most important regions in USA- “World’s Breadbasket” • Winter wheat areas of Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma • Spring wheat areas of N.& S.Dakota, Montana • Palouse region Washington State • Other grain countries-Canada, Australia, Argentina, France, UK • Grown on large farms, machines employed

    19. Commercial Agriculture • Livestock Ranching: commercial grazing of livestock over a large area (practiced where crop growing is difficult) South American pampas (prairie) • Mediterranean Agriculture: not just Mediterranean (California, Chile) olives, grapes, fruits, vegetables. • Commercial gardening/fruit farming: southeast US-long growing seasons, called “truck” farming-apples, cherries, lettuce, tomatoes

    20. Commercial Agriculture-last one! • Plantation Farming: large farm that specializes in 1 or 2 crops • Found in Latin America, Africa, Asia • Cotton, sugarcane, coffee, rubber, tobacco • Mostly import wokers • Corporate units

    21. America! Here’s Why people move here: Plenty of Food!

    22. In America:“Milk does a body good”

    23. Dairy Farmers of America Unite!

    24. The World’s “Breadbasket”

    25. Where’s the Beef?

    26. Von Thunen’s Model

    27. Von Thunen’s Model

    28. Economic Issues Facing Agriculture • Challenges for commercial farmers • Overproduction • Sustainable agriculture • Challenges for subsistence farmers • Population growth • International trade • Increasing food supply

    29. WorldwideImport/Export of Grain

    30. Undernourished Population