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Agriculture. Agriculture Primary Economic Activities. Primary Sector (Ag) Secondary Sector (industry) Tertiary Sector (services) Quaternary Sector (service/research and development). Origins of Agriculture . Which of these areas are considered cultural hearths?. History of Agriculture.

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Agriculture


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    1. Agriculture

    2. Agriculture Primary Economic Activities Primary Sector (Ag) Secondary Sector (industry) Tertiary Sector (services) Quaternary Sector (service/research and development)

    3. Origins of Agriculture Which of these areas are considered cultural hearths?

    4. History of Agriculture • Hunter-Gatherers • Neolithic Revolution • Domestication of Plants and Animals • Diffusion of Agriculture • 2nd Agricultural Revolution • The “Green Revolution” • Hybrids, scientific application of fertilizer, pesticide, and water • Modern Agribusiness • Genetic Engineering of Crops

    5. Neolithic Agriculture1st Ag. Revolution • Before: Hunters and Gatherers • Carl Sauer • Vegetative planting • Dividing and transplanting • Seed agriculture • ‘Domesticating’ seeds

    6. Vegetative Planting Hearths Fig. 10-1: There were several main hearths, or centers of origin, for vegetative crops (roots and tubers, etc.), from which the crops diffused to other areas.

    7. Seed Agriculture Hearths Fig. 10-2: Seed agriculture also originated in several hearths and diffused from those elsewhere.

    8. Neolithic Revolution Primary effects: • Urbanization • Social stratification • Occupational specialization • Increased population densities Secondary effects: • Endemic diseases • Famine • Expansionism

    9. 2nd agricultural revolution Western Europe-1600’s Enlarge Farms - Enclosure More Production with fewer farmers Experimented with crop rotation – seed drill Former farmers moved to cities Well-fed population - LABOR

    10. Green Revolution – (3rd Ag. Revolution) • To be discussed !

    11. Agricultural Revolutions Technology allows much greater production (surplus) with less human labor, but often has high social and environmental costs. • Metal plows, Reapers, Cotton Gin • Tractors (Internal Combustion Engine)‏ • Combines • Chemical Pesticides/Fertilizers • Hybrid Crops • Genetically-modified Crops

    12. Subsistence Commercial Major agricultural production Regions

    13. Pg. 332 – Read about the Iqbel and McKinleys • Iqbel Farm • McKinley Farm

    14. Labor Force in Agriculture Fig. 10-3: A large proportion of workers in most LDCs are in agriculture, while only a small percentage of workers in MDCs are engaged in agriculture.

    15. Subsistence Commercial Major agricultural production Regions

    16. Tractors, per Population Fig. 10-4: Tractors per 1,000 people. Use of machinery is extensive in most MDC agriculture, but it is much less common in LDCs.

    17. Subsistence Commercial Major agricultural production Regions

    18. World Agriculture Regions Fig. 10-5a: Locations of the major types of subsistence and commercial agriculture.

    19. World Climate Regions Fig. 10-5b: Simplified map of the main world climate regions (see also Fig. 2.2).

    20. Use the information to complete the chart

    21. Contemporary Food Production

    22. Contemporary Food Consumption Is there a spatial relationship to the original hearths?

    23. History of Ag. Assignment With a partner, • Make statements about what each chart or map shows • Show relationships between the charts and maps in your packet. • How do they correlate? • Does culture play a role? • Does agriculture determine any other aspects of life?

    24. Agriculture is a global economy.

    25. Developed Countries Undercut Free Markets in Agriculture • Farmers in the developed world are paid an average of 2/3 more than the free market would provide. • These subsidies to the world’s richest farmers directly damage the agricultural economies of the poorest nations. • Despite this, the U.S. Congress and President Bush actually increased farm subsidies in 2002.

    26. Agribusiness:The industrialization of agriculture • Modern commercial farming is very dependent on inputs of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides. • Oil is required to make fertilizer and pesticides. • It takes 10 calories of energy to create 1 calorie of food in modern agriculture. • Small farmer can’t buy needed equipment and supplies. • Fewer than 2% of U.S. population works in agriculture