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Agriculture. Chapter 11. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE. p. 330. Key Questions :. What is Agriculture? and Where did Agriculture Begin?. AGRICULTURE. Agriculture – the purposeful tending of crops and raising of livestock in order to produce food and fiber. ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES.

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    1. Agriculture Chapter 11


    3. Key Questions: What is Agriculture? and Where did Agriculture Begin?

    4. AGRICULTURE Agriculture – the purposeful tending of crops and raising of livestock in order to produce food and fiber.

    5. ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES • Primary Economic Activities: Natural Resources---products closest to the environment (agriculture, fishing, forestry & mining) • Secondary Economic Activities: Adding Value to Nat’l Resources --- Manufacturing & processing of primary products into new products • Tertiary economic activities: Service Industries --- connecting producers to consumers to facilitate trade • Specialized Services divided into: • Quaternary Economic Activities: Information or exchange of money or goods • Quinary Economic Activities: Tied into research or higher education

    6. Arable Land Percent Arable by Country Does the percent of land that is arable in a country determine the agricultural output or the calorie consumption in a country?

    7. The First Agricultural Revolution • Where Did Plant Domestication Begin? • South and Southeast Asia Early domestication of root crops, up to 14,000 years ago. • Southwest Asia (the Fertile Crescent) • Early domestication of seed crops, about 10,000 years ago. 2. Growing seed crops is more complex. 3. This is the beginning of the First Agricultural Revolution. 4. High production and steady food supply lead to a growing population. Cont. On Next Slide

    8. The 1st Agricultural Revolution • Where did animal domestication begin? • Fertile Crescent about 8,000 years ago • Why did it people initially domesticate animals? • Pets, ceremonial purposes • Animals were scavengers in human settlements • Benefits of animal domestication • Use as beasts of burden • Source of meat and milk • Domestication causes changes in animals over time • Weaker, smaller • Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa: Goat, Sheep, Camels • Southeast Asia: pigs, water buffalo, chickens, water fowl • South Asia: cattle • Central Asia: yak, horse, goats, sheep • Mesoamerica: llama, alpaca, pig, turkey • Dogs and cats were domesticated very early • 40 species of animals have been domesticated – most long ago

    9. The Fertile Crescent - Where the planned cultivation of seed crops began - - - - because of seed selection, plants got bigger over time - generated a surplus of wheat and barley - first integration of plant growing and animal raising (used crops to feed livestock, used livestock to help grow crops) p. 333

    10. World Areas of Agricultural Innovations Carl Sauer identified 11 areas where agricultural innovations occurred. p. 334

    11. Chief Source Regions of Important Crop Plant Domestications p. 335

    12. Animal Domestication – - Relatively few animals have been domesticated - Attempts at domestication continue, but most fail p. 337

    13. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE • Subsistence Agriculture – - Agriculture in which people grow only enough food for their family’s survival - Farmers often hold land in common and any surpluses are shared by all members. -Accumulation of personal wealth is restricted -Tend to be communal societies • some are sedentary and others transient, practicing shifting agriculture (many in Africa, SE Asia, Central America& So. America) - one kind of shifting agriculture is slash & burn agriculture (also called milpa agriculture & patch agriculture. pp. 338 & 339

    14. World Regions Of Primarily Subsistence Agriculture On this map, India and China are not shaded because farmers sell some produce at markets; in Equatorial Africa and South America, Subsistence Farming allows very little excess and thus little produce is sold at markets.p. 338

    15. - Settling down in one place, a rising population, and the switch to agriculture are interrelated occurrences in human history. - Hypothesize which of these three happened first, second, and third, and think of the reasons why.

    16. Key Question: How did Agriculture Change with Industrialization?

    17. Second Agriculture Revolution • Necessary for the Industrial Revolution to occur – had to 1st have greater surpluses then simply subsistence • A series of innovations, improvements, and techniques used to improve the output of agricultural surpluses (started before the industrial revolution). • Ex:seed drill advances in livestock breeding new fertilizers • Was often encouraged by legislation – Ex: Great Britain’s Enclosure Act – consolidated all fields into large, single-owner fenced holdings/small farmers & tenants turned off land. p.339

    18. Von Thunen Model, p. 340 • Von Thunen Model • What farmers produce varies by distance from the town, with livestock raising farthest from town. • Cost of transportation governs use of land. • First effort to analyze the spatial character of economic activity.

    19. APPLICATION OF VON THUNEN MODEL • Geographer Lee Liu studied the spatial pattern of agriculture production in China. His Findings: - Farmers living in a village intensively farm both lands close to the village and lands far away. - Methods varied spatially resulting in land improvement (by adding organic material) close to village and land degradation (lots of pesticides and fewer conservation tactics) farther from village. p.340

    20. Third Agriculture Revolution(Green Revolution) • Invention of high-yield grains, especially rice, with goal of reducing hunger. • Increased production of rice. • New varieties in wheat and corn. • Reduced famines due to crop failure. • Now most famines are due to political problems. • Impact (in terms of hunger) is greatest where rice is produced. p. 341

    21. Average Daily Calorie Consumption per Capita

    22. Opposition to Green Revolution • The Opposition argues that the Green Revolution has led to: • Vulnerability To Pests • Soil erosion • Water shortages • Micronutrient deficiencies • Dependency on chemicals for production • Loss of control over seeds p. 342

    23. Regional and Local Change Geographer Judith Carney finds that changing agricultural practices alter the rural environment and economy and also relations between men and women. In Gambia, international development projects have converted wetlands into irrigated agricultural lands, in order to make the production of rice year-round. p. 343

    24. Year Round Rice Production –- Lands that used to be used for family subsistence are now used for commercialized farming with revenues going to the men.- Women do the work of rice production but see little of the benefit because of the power relations & gender bias in Gambia p. 343

    25. Genetically engineered crops are yielding ethical problems. 1. In the semi-periphery, farmers typically keep seeds from crops so that they can plant the seeds the next year. 2. Companies that produce genetically engineered seeds do not approve of this process; generally, they want farmers to purchase new seeds each year. 3. Using the concepts of scale and jumping scale, determine the ethical questions in this debate.

    26. Key Question: What Imprint does agriculture make on the Cultural Landscape?

    27. CADASTRAL SYSTEMS* * The method of land survey through which landownership & property lines are defined. Cadastral systems were adopted in places where settlements could be regulated by law, and land surveys were essential to their implementation. • TOWNSHIP-AND-RANGE SYSTEM (rectangular survey system) is based on a grid system that creates 1 square mile sections. (seen in Mid & Western U.S. & Canada) • METES AND BOUNDS SURVEY uses natural features to demarcate irregular parcels of land (seen along Atlantic Coast of the U.S.) • LONGLOT SURVEY SYSTEM divides land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals. (seen in LA, TX & Canadian Maritime Provinces) p. 344

    28. Dominant Land Survey Patterns in the US p. 345

    29. Township-and-Range System – The cultural landscape of Garden City, Iowa reflects the Township-and-Range system. Townships are 6x6 miles and section lines are every 1 mile. p. 344

    30. LONGLOT SURVEY SYSTEM – The cultural landscape of Burgandy, France reflects the Longlot Survey System, as land is divided into long, narrow parcels. People live in nucleated villages and land ownership is highly fragmented. p. 346

    31. Agricultural Villages, p. 346 • Linear Village • Cluster Village (nucleated) • Round Village (rundling) • Walled Village • Grid Village

    32. VILLAGE FORMS p. 347

    33. Functional Differentiation within Villages • Cultural landscape of a village reflects: • Social stratification (How is material well being reflected in the spaces of a village?) • Differentiation of buildings (What are they used for? How large are they?) p.347

    34. Cambodian Stilt Village Buildings look alike, but serve different purposes. p. 348

    35. MN Farm Each building serves a different purpose p. 348

    36. Think of an agricultural region you have either visited or seen from an airplane. What was the imprint of agriculture on this cultural landscape? Consider what the cultural landscape can tell you about how agriculture is produced in this region.How has production changed over time?

    37. Key Question: What is the Global Pattern of Agriculture and Agribusiness?

    38. AGRICULTURE • Commercial Agriculture Term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology. - Roots are in colonial agriculture. - Today, global production made possible by advances in transportation and food storage. p. 349

    39. Advances in Transportation and Food Storage • - Containerization of seaborne freight traffic • Refrigeration of containers, as they wait transport in • Dunedin, New Zealand p. 350

    40. Agriculture And Climate • Climate Regions (based on temperature and precipitation) help determine agriculture production. • Agriculture Regions – drier lands usually have livestock ranching and moister climates usually have grain production.

    41. World Map of Climates Köppen Climate Classification System p. 352-353

    42. World Map of Agriculture Cash Crop and Plantation Agriculture Cotton and Rubber Luxury Crops Commercial Livestock, Fruit, and Grain Agriculture Subsistence Agriculture Mediterranean Agriculture Illegal Drugs p. 354-355

    43. Agribusiness and The Changing Geography of Agriculture • Commercialization of Crop Production with the development of new agricultural technologies, the production of agriculture has changed. - ex. The poultry industry in the US- - - production is now concentrated farming and is quickly turning into manufacturing pp. 357-358

    44. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE • Organic Agriculture – The production of crops without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers or the raising of livestock without hormones, antibiotics, and synthetic feeds. - sales of organic foods on the rise - grown everywhere - demand in wealthier countries


    46. FAIR TRADE AGRICULTURE • Fair Trade Coffee – Shade-grown coffee produced by certified fair trade farmers, who then sell the coffee directly to coffee importers. - guarantees a “fair trade price” - over 500,000 farmers - produced in more than 20 countries - often organically produced pp. 353-354

    47. A fair trade coffee farmer in El Salvador grows his beans organically and in the shade, allowing him to get a much better price for his coffee. pp. 353-354

    48. LOSS OF PRODUCTIVE FARMLAND Farmland in danger of being suburbanized as cities expand into neighboring farmlands. p. 359

    49. 1. Analyze Figure 11.19, p. 359, in your textbook. 2. Describe what areas of farmland in the country are the most susceptible to development.3. Explain why certain regions have more susceptible land than other regions.