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Chapter 6. How Animals Stay Alive?. Digestion 消化. Respiration 呼吸. Circulation 循環. Life activities. Water Balance 水分的平衡. Excretion 排泄. Coordination 協調. Pg. 115. L1 動物如何攝食及消化食物 ?. Pg. 116.  Different animals have different ways of getting food.

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Chapter 6

How Animals Stay Alive?

Digestion

消化

Respiration

呼吸

Circulation

循環

Life activities

Water Balance

水分的平衡

Excretion

排泄

Coordination

協調

Pg. 115


L1 動物如何攝食及消化食物?

Pg. 116

Different animals have different ways of getting food.

Many animals that live in water get food by filtering,

or straining, it.  filter feeding濾食

Ex: sponges, barnacles 藤壺, mollusks, even whales

Fluid 液體、汁液

Feed on…以...為食物

Some animals get food from the fluids of plants or

other animals. The fluids are rich in nutrients(養分).

Ex: Aphids蚜蟲, cicadas蟬, nectar 花蜜, leeches水蛭


Consuming Large Pieces Food

Pg. 117

Animals that eat plants are known as

herbivores(草食動物).

Ex: grasshopper蚱蜢, termite白蟻, beetle甲蟲

Animals that eat other animals are called

carnivores(肉食動物).

Ex:dragonfly蜻蜓, praying mantis螳螂

 Vertebrates are the only animals that have teeth.

Chisel鑿子


Digesting Food

Pg. 118

Secrete 分泌: 形成並釋放, 或是發散

Enzyme 酵素: 一種可以加速化學變化的物質

Gastrovascular cavity消化循環腔: 一有單一出口的消化空間

 The process of breaking down food into small

chemicals is digestion.

Sponge在細胞內消化食物, 這有什麼壞處(drawback)?

Most other animals digest their food outside of cells.

Gastrovascular cavity

Single opening: the mouth


Pg. 119

Digestive Tracts 消化管(道)

一個兩端都有開口的管狀的消化空間

Animals that are more developed have a

digestive tract. 較為進化的動物有消化管

The main functions of digestive tracts are

1storing food儲存食物, 2digesting food消化食物,

and 3absorbing nutrients吸收養分.

沙囊

食道

嗉囊

肛門


L2 Respiration & Circulation

呼吸和循環

Pg. 123

The process of gas exchange is called

respiration.

Animals respire, or take in oxygen and

give off carbon dioxide, in different ways.

Gas Exchange in Simple Animals

 Diffusion擴散

分子由濃度高處

往濃度低處移動

水中的氧氣濃度高於生物

體內細胞的氧氣濃度


Gas Exchange in Other Animals

Pg. 124

大多數動物並不是只有兩層細胞的厚度,他們的

細胞並不能直接和外在環境進行氣體交換。他們

必須有一個特別的器官來進行氣體交換的工作。

生活在水裡的動物通常都有gills

Feathery structure

Other animals: Lung

Insects: 使用一管狀系統將空氣帶入體內,

這些管子的入口遍佈昆蟲全身,且有許多細小

分支幾乎到達所有的細胞。


Pg. 125

Circulatory Systems 循環系統

: moves blood through the body

Flowing in a circle

A set of tubes  blood vessels

Pump(s)  hearts

Annelid:

環節動物

The blood stays inside

vessels at all times.

The blood flows slowly

through the spaces and

makes direct contact with cells.


Vertebrate Circulatory Systems

Pg. 126

Fish: 1 atrium, 1 ventricle

右心房

Amphibians & reptiles:

2 atrium, 1 ventricle

右心室

Birds, mammals, and

Some reptiles:

2 atrium, 2 ventricles.

Chamber 腔室


L3 水分的平衡與廢物

Pg. 128

Excrete 排泄

Seawater = water + salt

Fluids of animals contain water and salt

Fluid: more salt, lower water concentration

Review: Osmosis It can cause problems

if too much water gets into an animal

How do most sea invertebrates avoid getting

too much water in their bodies?

How about cartilage fish?

How about bony fish, whose body fluid

have a higher water concentration than

seawater?


Water Balance in Freshwater淡水

Pg. 129

生活在淡水中的動物有太多的水流入他們身體, why?

How do they deal with this?

淡水動物利用特別的器官來移除過量的物質或是

過多的水,例如扁蟲類動物在他們全身佈滿了小

小管子,這些管子連通到一種叫做flame cell焰細胞

的構造。Flame cell會收集flatworm體內多餘的水分,

其中的cilia會沿著管子推動水分子, 水會從體壁上

的開口(孔)離開。

Flame cell 焰細胞


Freshwater bony fish & bony fish in the sea

have opposite problems.

To get rid of the excess water, the fish use

their kidney to excrete urine尿.

注意淡水魚對鹽分的攝取

與排出是從何處?

urine

Kidney腎

Pg. 129


Water Balance on Land

Pg. 130-131

陸地上的動物擔心的是什麼呢?Dry out!

So, animals have ways to limit water loss.

But HOW?

Land snail? Insect? Reptiles, birds, mammals?

The entire body of a land animal cannot be

watertight. Animals need to respire. 氣體交換、

尿液、糞便、及流汗也會讓動物失去水分。

Drinking water!!!

Kangaroo rat?

Excreting Wastes

Ammonia 氨NH3

Kidney是mammals &

birds維持水分平衡的主要器官


Pg. 133

Endocrine System

L4協調身體的活動

內分泌

Nervous System

Coordinate: work together

Chemical

Hormone 荷爾蒙

Specificity:專一性

Endocrine System

Vasopressin垂體後葉荷爾蒙

Hormone的作用是緩

慢進行的,例如青蛙

變成蝌蚪的這個變態的

過程,就是由於hormone的作用。

循環系統

腺體

Hormone一定是從腺體分泌

之後作用到細胞或器官上。

荷爾蒙和其作用的

細胞有專一性


Nervous System

Pg. 134

The nervous system carries its messages

directly to parts of the body. 不需要循環系統幫助

impulse 神經衝動

neurotransmitter

神經傳導物質

Impulses travel quickly along nerve cells. 120 m/sec

The nervous system is suited to control activities that

happen quickly.


Invertebrate Nervous Systems

Pg. 135

Except for sponges, all animals have a nervous system.

Cnidarians: nerve net

Flatworms, segmented worms, & arthropods具有可以

感覺環境的構造;如眼睛和觸鬚,也有clusters of

nerve cells (就像個簡單的腦的構造)

Invertebrate中,squids &

octopuses有最發達的神經系統


Pg. 136

The Vertebrate Nervous System

Central nervous system: brain & spinal cord (CNS)

Peripheral nervous system: nerves (PNS)

skull

Bones protect the brain

& the spinal cord.

backbone

Nerves pass through holes

in the skull and backbone.


Pg. 137

Comparing Vertebrate Brains

Cerebrum大腦

Cerebrum掌控 thought, memory, & learning.

The more nerve cells an animal has,

the more it can learn and remember.

Chapter 6 Review:

11~18

BACD BDAB


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