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Chapter 4. Socialization. Chapter Outline. The Socialization Process Theories of Socialization Agents of Socialization Growing up in a Diverse Society Socialization Across the Life Course Resocialization. The Socialization Process.

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chapter 4

Chapter 4


chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • The Socialization Process
  • Theories of Socialization
  • Agents of Socialization
  • Growing up in a Diverse Society
  • Socialization Across the Life Course
  • Resocialization
the socialization process
The Socialization Process
  • Humans learn the expectations of society through the process of socialization.
  • Socialization is different based on race, gender and class.
  • Examining the socialization process helps us see how our lives are socially constructed.
consequences of socialization
Consequences of Socialization
  • Establishes self-concepts.
  • Creates the capacity for role taking.
  • Creates the tendency for people to act in socially acceptable ways.
  • Makes people bearers of culture.
psychoanalytic theory of socialization
Psychoanalytic Theory of Socialization
  • The unconscious mind shapes human behavior.
  • Depicts the human psyche in three parts:
    • Id - deep drives and impulses
    • Ego - reason and common sense
    • Superego - represents the standards of society
object relations theory of socialization
Object Relations Theory of Socialization
  • Infants identify with they same sex parent.
  • The self emerges from separating oneself from the primary caretaker.
  • The division of labor in a family shapes the formation of identity.
social learning theory of socialization
Social Learning Theory of Socialization
  • People respond to social stimuli in their environment.
  • Identity is created through the interaction of mental and social worlds.
  • Children learn though taking the role of significant others.
  • Identity emerges as the creative self interacts with the social expectations of others.
piaget social learning theory
Piaget: Social Learning Theory

Children go through stages of cognitive development:

  • Sensorimotor
  • Preoperational
  • Concrete operational
  • Formal operational .
the looking glass self
The Looking-glass Self

Self concept comes though reflection about relationships to others.

  • How we think we appear to others.
  • How we think others judge us.
  • How these make us feel - proud, embarrassed or something else.
mead taking the role of the other
Mead: Taking the Role of the Other
  • Imitation stage - children imitate the behavior of those around them.
  • Play stage - children take on the role of significant others.
  • Game stage - children internalize an abstract understanding of how society sees them.
socialization across the life cycle
Socialization Across the Life Cycle
  • Childhood - establish one’s initial identity and values.
  • Adolescence - form a consistent identity.
  • Adulthood and Old Age - learn new roles and expectations in adult life.
  • Occurs when people enter hierarchical organizations that require them to respond to authority on principal, rather than loyalty.
  • Examples: military, prison, monastic orders, cults, fraternities and sororities