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Chapter1 principles of design


Engineering Mathematics

Introduction description

Principles of Design will cover essential engineering mathematical concepts that will allow you to practice civil engineering design principles by scaling, measuring, and constructing a model truss or suspension bridge.

You will complete team building exercises to calculate dimensions, resultant force, and force using a free-body diagram.

Chapter 1 outline
Chapter 1: Outline

Free-body Diagrams

Calculus Gear Speed, Torque, and Pitch

Dimensioning and Tolerance

Designing a Truss

Objectives and results
Objectives and Results

  • Objectives

    • To understand and execute the team building process.

    • To understand and execute dimensional analysis and the principles of design.

    • To understand the purpose of technical drawings.

  • Results

    • The result will be to build a truss or suspension bridge, using the principles of design.


  • Team Building

  • Dimensional Analysis

  • Principles of Design

  • Technical Drawing

  • Truss Bridge

  • Suspension Bridge

Civil engineering profession
Civil Engineering Profession

  • Visit the O*Net website (

  • Write a one-page essay on the civil engineering profession.

Principles of design
Principles of Design

The Principles of Design lesson consists of five sections:

  • Introduction and Team Building

  • Dimensional Analysis

  • Principles of Design

  • Technical Drawing

  • Bridge Building Contest

Team building
Team Building

“A team is a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.”

Katzenbach, Jon R., and Smith, Douglas K., The wisdom of teams: creating the high-performance organization; Jon R. Katzenbach, Douglas K. Smith Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Mass.: 1993

What is a team?

What is team building
What is Team Building?

  • Creating a successful team can be a challenging task.

  • Teams must rely on the process called team building.

  • Team building integrates individual skills and resources into a unified effort.

Team building actions
Team Building Actions

Team building involves the following actions:

  • Encouraging team members to examine how they currently work together

  • Portraying ideal ways of collaborating

  • Exploring the gaps and weaknesses they currently suffer from

  • Establishing action plans for implementing more effective ways of cooperating

What is a team leader
What is a Team Leader?

  • Team building is best aided by a team leader or a facilitator.

  • A team leader or facilitator performs several tasks:

  • Helps the group learn about itself

  • Observes team meetings

  • Gives feedback and key observations to the team

What does a team leader do
What Does a Team Leader Do?

  • A team leader probes, questions, listens, watches for nonverbal cues, and stimulates problem solving.

  • The intended results include a team that is open to new alternatives, who is aware of their resources, has the ability to think and act independently, and is willing to explore the consequences of their current or proposed actions.

Benefits of team building
Benefits of Team Building

There are several benefits for executing team building:

  • Improves morale and leadership skills

  • Clearly defines objectives and goals

  • Improves processes and procedures

  • Improves team productivity

  • Identifies a team's strengths and weaknesses

  • Improves the team’s ability to problem solve

Team building assignment
Team Building Assignment

In your team, discuss leadership roles and responsibilities of team members.

  • Select roles for each team member.

  • Write and agree to team contract.

  • Have your teacher approve your team contract.

  • Discuss implications of team building in the field of engineering.

Dimensional analysis in action
Dimensional Analysis in Action

  • Dimensional analysis is a method of analyzing equations or physical quantities in terms of their dimensions and units.

  • Dimensional analysis can be used to

    • derive or construct an equation,

    • verify that an equation is valid, or

    • determine the units of a solution or quantity in an equation.

Physical quantities and dimensions
Physical Quantities and Dimensions

  • Physical quantity is a property of objects that can be measured, such as speed, force, frequency, or volume.

  • Dimension is a fundamental component of a physical quantity, such as length, time, mass, electric charge or temperature.

  • All dimensions are physical quantities, but not all physical quantities are dimensions.

Dimensional analysis
Dimensional Analysis

You can use dimensions to learn more about a physical quantity or an equation. This is called dimensional analysis.

Two major systems of units
Two Major Systems of Units

  • Système International (SI)

  • This system is often referred to as the Metric System.

  • Units are based on “10” (e.g., meters, liters, grams).

  • SI units are most often used by scientists and engineers.

    Units: The Metric System

  • Customary System

  • This system is also known as “English” or “Imperial,” commonly used in regions colonized by the United Kingdom.

  • There is no standard relationship between different units (e.g., feet, gallons, pounds).

  • Metric System versus Customary System

What are the principles of design
What are the Principles of Design?

  • Principles of design are laws for designing anything.

  • Principles of design involves nine principles:

  • Balance

  • Emphasis

  • Movement

  • Pattern

  • Repetition

  • Proportion

  • Rhythm

  • Variety

  • Unity

1 balance
#1: Balance

Balanceis the distribution of the visual weight of objects, colors, texture, and space.

  • In symmetrical balance, the elements used on one side of the design are similar to those on the other side.

  • In asymmetrical balance, the sides are different but still look balanced.

  • In radial balance, the elements are arranged around a central point and may be similar.


2 emphasis
#2: Emphasis


3 movement
#3: Movement

  • Movementis the path the viewer’s eye takes through the artwork, often to focal areas.

  • Such movement can be directed along lines edges, shape and color within the artwork.


5 repetition
#5: Repetition

  • Repetitionworks with pattern to make the artwork seem active.

  • The repetition of elements of design creates unity within the artwork.


4 pattern
#4: Pattern


6 proportion
#6: Proportion


7 rhythm
#7: Rhythm

  • Rhythmis created when one or more elements of design are used repeatedly to create a feeling of organized movement.

  • Variety is essential to keep rhythm exciting and active, and moving the viewer around the artwork.

  • Rhythm creates a mood like music or dancing.


8 variety
#8: Variety


9 unity
#9: Unity

Unityis the feeling of harmony between all parts of the artwork creating a sense of completeness.


Technical drawing
Technical Drawing

  • In this technical drawing section, you will draw the bridge from the team building exercise. You will use the principles of design, as you draw your truss or suspension bridges.

  • Technical drawing is the oldest type of written expression.

  • It has been used from the time of the ancient Egyptian pyramids and the classical Greek Parthenon to the geodesic domes of Buckminster Fuller and NASA’s space stations.

Technical drawing cont
Technical Drawing, cont.

Many prominent American leaders used instruments for preparing accurate technical drawings.

  • George Washington was a surveyor. He and his military officers used drafting skills for mapping new territories.

  • Thomas Jefferson prepared house plans for Monticello, his beautiful mansion in Virginia, and for the University of Virginia.

What is technical drawing
What is Technical Drawing?

  • A word is an abstract symbol representing a thing or an idea, but a picture represents an object the way it appears in real life.

  • Confucius said, “One picture is worth a thousand words.”

  • To understand the truth of this statement, try to tell in words how to build a house, a model, or a mechanical device.

What is technical drawing cont
What is Technical Drawing?, cont.

  • However, no object is so complicated that it cannot be drawn.

  • Technical drawing, or drafting, allows you to communicate ideas clearly and effectively.

  • Engineering drawing is one form of technical drawing that shows the construction of a mechanical part or device.

Main classes of technical drawings
Main Classes of Technical Drawings

  • Artistic

  • The artist is allowed to express philosophic or aesthetic ideas or emotions.

  • The objects created are drawn in the artist’s personal style.

  • The drawing looks the way the artists sees the object, not necessarily the way the object really appears.

  • Technical

  • The technical person is concerned with how objects really are.

  • Technical drawings show objects as true to life as possible.

  • Accuracy is one of the main objectives of a technical drawing.

Users of technical drawing
Users of Technical Drawing

  • Engineers, inventors, or designers usually create the first drawings of their design themselves.

  • They often first produce a freehand sketch and then a more accurate drafting representation is created.

  • Some of the ways to communicate a technical drawing include the use of Computer-aided Design (CAD) and using precision drafting tools.

Working drawings
Working Drawings

  • When the designer is satisfied with the development of the idea, working drawings are created for the manufacturing shop.

  • A working drawing is a complete drawing. The working drawing is a complete description of the object.

  • The drawing is composed of two parts: the views and the dimensions.

Branches of technical drawing
Branches of Technical Drawing

Technical drawing is composed of many specialized types of drawing applied to various fields.

  • Architectural drawing is used in the building industry.

  • Machine drawing is used in the manufacturing industries.

  • Structural drawing is used in the construction industries, where structural steel is used for large buildings and bridges.

  • Sheet metal, electrical, aeronautical, and marine drawings are other areas.

Essentials of technical drawing
Essentials of Technical Drawing

A technical drawing must be

  • drawn accurately,

  • drawn with proper technique (lines must exhibit good contrast),

  • be neat, and

  • made with speed.

Technical drawing assignment
Technical Drawing Assignment

Choose any one mechanical item and create the following four technical drawings of your item:

  • Freehand sketch

  • Drafting representation

  • Dimensional drawing

  • Artistic rendition following the principles of design

    Note: All four drawings should be turned-in on the same sheet of paper (you may use front and back).

Bridge building contest
Bridge Building Contest

  • Create a team of three (3) students and research truss and suspension bridges.

  • Develop a plan for designing your team’s truss or suspension bridges.

  • Create a technical drawing of your team’s bridge.

Bridge building contest cont
Bridge Building Contest, cont.

  • Construct your team’s bridge.

  • Create a presentation, after the bridge completion.

  • Present your team’s presentation and test the strength of your team’s bridge.


  • ClipArt;

  • Images;

  • Slide 21Balance video; from YouTube user: uxpassion;

  • Slide 22Emphasis video; from YouTube user; Ari Richter;

Credits cont
Credits, cont.

  • Slide 23

    Movement video; from YouTube user; expertvillage;

  • Slide 24

    Pattern video; from YouTube user; expertvillage;

  • Slide 25

    Repetition video; from YouTube user; expertvillage;

Credits cont1
Credits, cont.

  • Slide 26

    Proportion video; from YouTube user; expertvillage;

  • Slide 27

    Rhythm video; from YouTube user; expertvillage;

  • Slide 28

    Variety video; from YouTube user; expertvillage;

Credits cont2
Credits, cont.

  • Slide 29

    Unity video; from YouTube user; expertvillage;