Learning objective – to be able to understand the measures the Liberals took after 1908. I canexplain how the key Liberal reforms after 1908. Grade B I can explain and to evaluate the impact of the Liberal reforms after 1908. Grade A I can describe some of the key Liberal reforms after 1908. Grade D
Starter – What measures would you put in pace to help the elderly, sick and unemployed if you were Prime Minister?
Why was 1908 a turning point in the Liberal reforms? In 1908, the Liberals appointed David Lloyd George as Chancellor of the Exchequer. A passionate advocate of welfare reforms he raised taxes in the People’s Budget, finally passed in 1909, to fund further reforms to help the sick, the old and the unemployed.
How did the Old Age Pensions Act of 1908 support the elderly? The Old Age Pensions Act provided the first ever state funded pension for the elderly. Its key features were – • Defined pensionable age as 70 or over. • Anyone with an annual income of £31 or over were not allowed a pension. • Only British citizens who had lived in Britain for the previous 20 years qualified. • Pensions could be refused to people who were judged not to have worked hard in the past. • Pensions were 5s for one person and 7s 6d for a married couple.
What was the impact of Old Age Pensions Act of 1908? The Old Age Pensions Act had a significant impact on the elderly in the following ways – • It gave the elderly economic independence for the first time. • It saved many from the workhouse. • By 1914, there were 1 million pensioners – 650,000 of these in the first year. • Was controversial for those who disagreed that it should have been funded by the government rather than a pension fund.
How was the unemployed supported by the Labour Exchange Act of 1909? The government was concerned with the problem of unemployment and underemployment. To combat this, the government in 1909 set up a system of labour exchanges across the country where people looking for work could register and employers find workers. This streamlined the way people could not look for work and by 1913, 3,000 workers were finding work per day through 400 labour exchanges.
How did the National Insurance Act of 1911 help the sick? The National Insurance Act aimed to help the sick and unemployed. It provided sick pay for a limited time for workers who were to ill to work. Sick pay was provided for 26 weeks at 10 shillings a week. Free medical care was provided for the worker but not his family.
How did the National Insurance Act of 1911 help the unemployment? The National Insurance Act aimed to help the sick and unemployed. It provided unemployment benefit for those registered as out of work. Unemployment benefit was provided for 15 weeks at 7 shillings per week. This was deliberately kept low to discourage workers from not looking for work.
How was the National Insurance Act of 1911 funded? The National Insurance Act benefits of sick pay and unemployment benefit was funded through compulsory contributions from the workers as well as contributions from the employer and the government. When a worker made a contribution he would receive a record of this on his National Insurance card in the form of a ‘stamp’ This was controversial as many workers resent this ‘extra tax’ and preferred the series of ‘friendly societies’ which provided care in times of need.
Main task Make notes on how the Liberal reforms helped the old sick and unemployed using the following subheadings to organise your notes. Old Age Pensions Act of 1908 and its impact. Labour Exchange Act of 1909 and its impact. The National Insurance Act of 1911 and its impact. Which of the above acts was the most significant? Explain your answer. Which of the above acts was the most successful? Explain your answer.
Extension/ Home Learning exercise You have been placed in charge of promoting the Liberal reforms to help the sick, old and the unemployed. Choose TWO of the following activities to promote one of the acts studied in this lesson, of these at least ONE must be a written task – • A speech for David Lloyd George outlining the benefits of the National Insurance Act for workers. • A propaganda poster which uses exactly 16 words which promotes the passing of the Old Age Pensions Act. • Write an article for the local newspaper telling the story of the opening of the first Labour Exchange in Hemel Hempstead. • Design a logo promoting one of the acts studied in this lesson. Ensure that the logo contains symbols showing the aims and benefits of the act.
Plenary – a touch of Scrabble What are the three key words from this lesson that sums up your learning? Which word has the highest value if you used in a game of Scrabble? Compare with the person next to you. Which word has the highest value?