unit 6 the great depression begins n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Unit 6 The Great Depression Begins PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Unit 6 The Great Depression Begins

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 80

Unit 6 The Great Depression Begins - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 154 Views
  • Uploaded on

Unit 6 The Great Depression Begins. Mr. Hughes Anaheim High School United States History. The nation’s Sick Economy. In this section we will look at the end of prosperity of the 1920’s in America and how severe economic problems gripped the nation. THE NATION’S SICK ECONOMY.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Unit 6 The Great Depression Begins' - aelan


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
unit 6 the great depression begins

Unit 6The Great Depression Begins

Mr. Hughes

Anaheim High School

United States History

the nation s sick economy
The nation’s Sick Economy

In this section we will look at the end of prosperity of the 1920’s in America and how severe economic problems gripped the nation.

the nation s sick economy1
THE NATION’S SICK ECONOMY

As the 1920s advanced, serious problems threatened the economy while

Important industries struggled, including:

  • Agriculture
  • Railroads
  • Textiles
  • Steel
  • Mining
  • Lumber
  • Automobiles
  • Housing
  • Consumer goods
farmers struggle
FARMERS STRUGGLE
  • No industry suffered as much as agriculture
  • During World War I European demand for American crops soared
  • After the war demand plummeted
  • Farmers increased production sending prices further downward
consumer spending down
CONSUMER SPENDING DOWN
  • By the late 1920s, American consumers were buying less
  • Rising prices, stagnant wages and overbuying on credit were to blame
  • Most people did not have the money to buy the flood of goods factories produced
gap between rich poor
GAP BETWEEN RICH & POOR
  • The gap between rich and poor widened
  • The wealthiest 1% saw their income rise 75%
  • The rest of the population saw an increase of only 9%
  • More than 70% of American families earned less than $2500 per year
hoover wins 1928 election
HOOVER WINS 1928 ELECTION
  • Republican Herbert Hoover ran against Democrat Alfred E. Smith in the 1928 election
  • Hoover emphasized years of prosperity under Republican administrations
  • Hoover won an overwhelming victory
the stock market
THE STOCK MARKET
  • By 1929, many Americans were invested in the Stock Market
  • The Stock Market had become the most visible symbol of a prosperous American economy
  • The Dow Jones Industrial Average was the barometer of the Stock Market’s worth
  • The Dow is a measure based on the price of 30 large firms
stock prices rise through the 1920s
STOCK PRICES RISE THROUGH THE 1920s
  • Through most of the 1920s, stock prices rose steadily
  • The Dow reached a high in 1929 of 381 points
    • (300 points higher than 1924)
  • By 1929, 4 million Americans owned stocks
seeds of trouble
SEEDS OF TROUBLE
  • By the late 1920s, problems with the economy emerged
  • Speculation:Too many Americans were engaged in speculation – buying stocks & bonds hoping for a quick profit
  • Margin:Americans were buying “on margin” – paying a small percentage of a stock’s price as a downpayment and borrowing the rest
the 1929 crash
THE 1929 CRASH
  • In September the Stock Market had some unusual up & down movements
  • On October 24, the market took a plunge . . .the worst was yet to come
  • On October 29, now known as Black Tuesday, the bottom fell out
    • 16.4 million shares were sold that day – prices plummeted
  • People who had bought on margin (credit) were stuck with huge debts

http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=28DF7397-D53F-406F-A49F-219125726FE0&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

the great depression
THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  • The Stock Market crash signaled the beginning of the Great Depression
  • The Great Depression is generally defined as the period from 1929 – 1940 in which the economy plummeted and unemployment skyrocketed
  • The crash alone did not cause the Great Depression, but it hastened its arrival
financial collapse
FINANCIAL COLLAPSE
  • After the crash, many Americans panicked and withdrew their money from banks
  • Banks had invested in the Stock Market and lost money
  • In 1929- 600 banks failed
  • By 1933 – 11,000 of the 25,000 banks nationwide had collapsed
gnp drops unemployment soars
GNP DROPS, UNEMPLOYMENT SOARS
  • Between 1928-1932, the U.S. Gross National Product (GNP) – the total output of a nation’s goods & services – fell nearly 50% from $104 billion to $59 billion
  • 90,000 businesses went bankrupt
  • Unemployment leaped from 3% in 1929 to 25% in 1933
hawley smoot tariff
HAWLEY-SMOOT TARIFF
  • The U.S. was not the only country gripped by the Great Depression
  • Much of Europe suffered throughout the 1920s
  • In 1930, Congress passed the toughest tariff in U.S. history called the Hawley-Smoot Tariff
  • It was meant to protect U.S. industry yet had the opposite effect
  • Other countries enacted their own tariffs and soon world trade fell 40%
causes of the great depression
CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  • Tariffs & war debt policies
  • U.S. demand low, despite factories producing more
  • Farm sector crisis
  • Easy credit
  • Unequal distribution of income
hardships during the depression
Hardships During the Depression

In this section, we will look at what Americans had to do during the Great Depression to survive and the problems President Hoover and the government had trying to lead the nation out of this problem.

hardships during depression
HARDSHIPS DURING DEPRESSION
  • The Great Depression brought hardship, homelessness, and hunger to millions
  • Across the country, people lost their jobs, and their homes
  • Some built makeshifts shacks out of scrap material
  • Before long whole shantytowns (sometimes called Hoovervilles in mock reference to the president) sprung up

http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=28DF7397-D53F-406F-A49F-219125726FE0&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

soup kitchens
SOUP KITCHENS
  • One of the common features of urban areas during the era were soup kitchens and bread lines
  • Soup kitchens and bread lines offered free or low-cost food for people
conditions for minorities
CONDITIONS FOR MINORITIES
  • Conditions for African Americans and Latinos were especially difficult
  • Unemployment was the highest among minorities and their pay was the lowest
  • Increased violence (24 lynchings in 1933 alone)marred the 1930s
  • Many Mexicans were “encouraged” to return to their homeland
rural life during the depression
RURAL LIFE DURING THE DEPRESSION
  • While the Depression was difficult for everyone, farmers did have one advantage; they could grow food for their families
  • Thousands of farmers, however, lost their land
  • Many turned to tenant farming and barely scraped out a living
the dust bowl
THE DUST BOWL
  • A severe drought gripped the Great Plains in the early 1930s
  • Wind scattered the topsoil, exposing sand and grit
  • The resulting dust traveled hundreds of miles
  • One storm in 1934 picked up millions of tons of dust from the Plains an carried it to the East Coast

http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=BB8594C5-87EA-445D-A672-C311AAAA44BA&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

hardest hit regions
HARDEST HIT REGIONS
  • Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado were the hardest hit regions during the Dust Bowl
  • Many farmers migrated to California and other Pacific Coast states
hoboes travel america
HOBOES TRAVEL AMERICA
  • The 1930s created the term “hoboes” to describe poor drifters
  • 300,000 transients – or hoboes – hitched rides around the country on trains and slept under bridges (thousands were teenagers)
  • Injuries and death was common on railroad property; over 50,000 people were hurt or killed
effects of depression
EFFECTS OF DEPRESSION
  • Suicide rate rose more than 30% between 1928-1932
  • Alcoholism rose sharply in urban areas
  • Three times as many people were admitted to state mental hospitals as in normal times
  • Many people showed great kindness to strangers
  • Additionally, many people developed habits of savings & thriftiness
hoover struggles with the depression
HOOVER STRUGGLES WITH THE DEPRESSION
  • After the stock market crash, President Hoover tried to reassure Americans
    • He said, “Any lack of confidence in the economic future . . . Is foolish”
  • He recommended business as usual
hoover s philosophy
HOOVER’S PHILOSOPHY
  • Hoover was not quick to react to the depression
  • He believed in “rugged individualism” – the idea that people succeed through their own efforts
  • People should take care of themselves, not depend on governmental hand-outs
  • He said people should “pull themselves up by their bootstraps”
hoover s successful dam project
HOOVER’S SUCCESSFUL DAM PROJECT
  • Hoover successfully organized and authorized the construction of the Boulder Dam (Now called the Hoover Dam)
  • The $700 million project was the world’s tallest dam (726 feet) and the second largest (1,244 feet long)
    • The dam currently provides electricity, flood control and water for 7 western states
hoover takes action too little too late
HOOVER TAKES ACTION: TOO LITTLE TOO LATE
  • Hoover gradually softened his position on government intervention in the economy
  • He created the Federal Farm Board to help farmers
  • He also created the National Credit Organization that helped smaller banks
  • His Federal Home Loan Bank Act and Reconstruction Finance Corp were two measures enacted to protect people’s homes and businesses
bonus army
BONUS ARMY
  • A 1932 incident further damaged Hoover’s image
  • That spring about 15,000 World War I vets arrived in Washington to support a proposed bill
  • The PatmanBill would have authorized Congress to pay a bonus to WWI vets immediately
  • The bonus was scheduled to be paid in 1945 --- The Army vets wanted it NOW
bonus army turned down
BONUS ARMY TURNED DOWN
  • Hoover called the Bonus marchers, “Communists and criminals”
  • On June 17, 1932 the Senate voted down the PatnamBill
bonus marchers clash with soldiers
BONUS MARCHERS CLASH WITH SOLDIERS
  • Hoover told the Bonus marchers to go home– most did
  • 2,000 refused to leave
  • Hoover sent a force of 1,000 soldiers under the command of General Douglas MacArthur and his aide Dwight Eisenhower
americans shocked at treatment of wwi vets
AMERICANS SHOCKED AT TREATMENT OF WWI VETS
  • MacArthur’s 12th infantry gassed more than 1,000 marchers, including an 11-month old baby, who died
  • Two vets were shot and scores injured
  • Americans were outraged and once again, Hoover’s image suffered

http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=3BE613D9-F338-4C12-BD16-10280DDE017B&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

new deal fights the depression
New Deal Fights the depression

This section will look at how President Franklin D. Roosevelt used government programs to fight the depression.

a new deal fights the depression
A NEW DEAL FIGHTS THE DEPRESSION
  • The 1932 presidential election showed that Americans were clearly ready for a change
  • Republicans re-nominated Hoover despite his low approval rating
  • The Democrats nominated Franklin Delano Roosevelt

http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=831435aa-4bf5-49f0-9e24-7abc0e76b02a&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=HUB

roosevelt wins overwhelming victory
ROOSEVELT WINS OVERWHELMING VICTORY
  • Democrat Roosevelt, known popularly as FDR, was a 2-term governor of New York
  • FDR was a distant cousin of Teddy Roosevelt
  • The Democrats also won huge victories in the house and senate
  • Greatest Democratic victory in 80 years

FDR easily won the 1932 election

fdr launches new deal
FDR LAUNCHES NEW DEAL
  • FDR promised a “new deal” for the American people
  • He took office with a flurry of activity known as “The Hundred Days”
  • The 100 Days lasted from March to June 1933
  • He also called his group of advisors or “Brain Trust” together.
congress gets busy
CONGRESS GETS BUSY
  • FDR’s philosophy was to get people help and work through “deficit” spending
  • During the 100 Days, Congress passed more than 15 major pieces of legislation that significantly expanded government’s role in the nation’s economy and welfare
  • The Federal Emergency Relief Administration focused on helping the unemployed, the elderly, and ill
to do list 1 help banks
TO DO LIST: #1- HELP BANKS
  • First order of business was to get the banking system in order
  • On March 5, one day after taking office, FDR declared a bank holiday
  • He persuaded Congress to pass the Emergency Relief Act, which authorized the Treasury Department to inspect the nation’s banks
americans gain confidence in banks
AMERICANS GAIN CONFIDENCE IN BANKS
  • Next, FDR passed the Glass-Steagall Act which established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
  • The FDIC insured account holders up to $5,000 and set strict standards for banks to follow (today = $100,000)
more 100 days activity
MORE 100 DAYS ACTIVITY
  • Federal Securities Act: Required stock info to be accurate and truthful
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act: (AAA) Raised crop prices by lowering production
  • Tennessee Valley Authority: (TVA) Focused on direct relief to hard hit area– created ambitious dam projects
alphabet agencies
ALPHABET AGENCIES
  • CCC – Civilian Conservation Corps put young men to work
  • Men ages 18 to 25 worked building roads, parks, planting trees (200 million trees in Dust Bowl areas)
  • By 1942 three million men worked for the CCC
alphabet agencies1
ALPHABET AGENCIES
  • PWA – Public Works Administration was part of the NIRA (National Industrial Recovery Act)
    • The NIRA promoted financial recovery by stopping wage cuts, falling prices, and layoffs.
  • The PWA provided money to states to construct schools and community buildings

PWA workers construct a public building in Hartford, Connecticut

alphabet agencies2
ALPHABET AGENCIES
  • CWA – Civil Works Administration built 40,000 schools and provided salaries for 50,000 teachers in rural America
  • Also built 500,000 miles of roads

CWA School in Woodville, CA

alphabet agencies3
ALPHABET AGENCIES
  • FHA – Federal Housing Administration provided home loans, home mortgages and repairs

Repaired business in Childersburg, Alabama

alphabet agencies4
ALPHABET AGENCIES
  • FERA – Federal Emergency Relief Agency provided $500 million in direct relief to the neediest Americans

Citizens wait outside a FERA in Calipatria, CA for relief checks

critics emerge
CRITICS EMERGE
  • Despite the renewed confidence of many Americans, critics from both political spectrums emerged
  • Liberals (left) felt FDR’s program was NOT doing enough
  • Conservatives (right) felt that government intervention was TOO much and interfered with our free market economy
supreme court reacts
SUPREME COURT REACTS
  • By the mid-1930s, the Supreme Court struck down the NIRA as unconstitutional (citing too much government control over industry)
  • The Court also struck down the AAA on the grounds that agriculture was a local matter -- not a federal matter

The Supreme Court -- 1935

fdr regains control over supreme court
FDR REGAINS CONTROL OVER SUPREME COURT
  • From the mid to late 1930s, FDR was able to appoint 7 new judges to the Supreme Court, thus assuring that his programs would carry on unabated
  • With FDR able to appoint justices, this was known as “packing” the Supreme Court.

http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=7b67cabf-6883-42f4-a16c-ff4284fb5b68&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=HUB

more critics
MORE CRITICS
  • Every Sunday, Father Charles Coughlin broadcast radio sermons slamming FDR
  • He called for a guaranteed annual income and nationalized banks
  • At his height of popularity, Coughlin had 45 million listeners
  • His increasingly anti-Semitic remarks ultimately cost him support

Coughlin

another critic
ANOTHER CRITIC
  • Huey Long was a Senator from Louisiana who was a constant (and effective) critic of FDR
  • Long was setting up a run for president
  • A lone gunman assassinated Long at the height of his popularity in 1935

http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=8DDADEFC-F07A-4845-A050-4BA2F3597C9D&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

Huey Long made effective use of radio to promote his views

fdr easily wins 2 nd term
FDR EASILY WINS 2ND TERM
  • The Republicans nominated Alfred Landon, Governor of Kansas, while the Democrats (of course) nominated Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Again the Dems and FDR won an overwhelming victory in the presidential election and in both houses

FDR wins in 1936

the second new deal
The second New Deal

This section will look at how the Second New Deal included new programs to extend federal aid and stimulate the nation’s economy.

the second new deal1
THE SECOND NEW DEAL
  • Although the economy had improved during FDR’s first term (1932-1936), the gains were not as great as expected
  • Unemployment remained high and production still lagged

http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=4054D0C1-97F6-4B99-A9D6-BDF064C0A8D2&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

the second hundred days
THE SECOND HUNDRED DAYS
  • FDR launches the “Second New Deal”

also called the “Second Hundred Days”

  • First priority was the farmers – FDR reinvigorated the AAA which provided aid for migrants, sharecroppers, and poor farmers
  • FDR authorized more than $1 billion to help tenant farmers become landowners
works progress administration
WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION
  • Helping urban workers was critical to the success of the Second Hundred Days
  • The WPA set out to create as many jobs as possible as quickly as possible
  • Between 1935-1943, the WPA spent $11 billion to give jobs to 8 million workers
wpa builds america
WPA BUILDS AMERICA
  • WPA workers built 850 airports, 651,000 miles of roads and streets, and 125,000 public buildings
  • The WPA also hired artists, writers and photographers to create art

The Davis Street School Extension in Atlanta under construction as part of the Works Progress Administration Program, November 2, 1936

national youth administration
NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION
  • The National Youth Administration (NYA) was created to provide education, jobs and recreation for young people
  • Getting young people off the streets and into schools and jobs was a high priority for the NYA
improving labor relations
IMPROVING LABOR RELATIONS
  • In the Second New Deal FDR helped pass the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)
    • The NLRA was also called the Wagner Act
  • This legislation protected workers, ensured collective bargaining, and preserved the right to unionize
congress protects workers
CONGRESS PROTECTS WORKERS
  • In 1938, Congress passed the Fair Labor Standards Act which set maximum hours at 44 per week and minimum wage at 25 cents per hour
social security act
SOCIAL SECURITY ACT
  • One of the most important achievements of the New Deal era was the creation of the Social Security System
  • The Social Security Act, passed in 1935, had 3 parts:
  • Old-Age Pension
  • Unemployment compensation
  • Aid to families with dependent children & disabled (welfare)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAONYTMf2pk

new deal affects many groups
NEW DEAL AFFECTS MANY GROUPS

Eleanor & Franklin

  • First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt helped women gain higher political positions during the New Deal
  • Eleanor was influential in her role as advisor to the president
  • Frances Perkins became America’s first female cabinet member (Labor)
african americans during the new deal
AFRICAN AMERICANS DURING THE NEW DEAL
  • The 1930s witnessed a growth of activism for black Americans
  • A. Philip Randolph became head of the nation’s first all-black union – the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
african americans gain political positions
AFRICAN AMERICANS GAIN POLITICAL POSITIONS
  • FDR appointed over 100 African Americans to positions within the government
  • Mary McLeod Bethune headed the division of Negro Affairs of the NYA
    • She also helped organize the “Black Cabinet” which advised the Roosevelt Administration on racial issues.
  • Despite these gains, FDR was never fully committed to Civil Rights

Bethune

native americans make gains
NATIVE AMERICANS MAKE GAINS
  • Native Americans made advances during the 1920s & 1930s
  • Full citizenship granted in 1924
  • The Reorganization Act of 1934 gave Natives more ownership of reservations
  • Policy was moving away from assimilation towards autonomy
fdr wins in 1936 again
FDR WINS IN 1936 . . . AGAIN
  • FDR had wide appeal in the United States, especially in urban areas
  • African Americans, Jews, Catholics and immigrants all supported the popular president
culture in the 1930s
CULTURE IN THE 1930s

MOVIES:

  • By the late 1930s, 65% of Americans were attending the movies at least once per week at one of the nation’s 15,000 movie theaters
  • Comedies, lavish musicals, love stories and gangster films dominated the movie industry

Movies provided an escape from the hardships of the Great Depression

famous films of the 30s
FAMOUS FILMS OF THE 30s
  • One of the most famous films of the era was Gone with the Wind (1939)
  • Other notable movies of the era included The Wizard of Oz (1939) and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)
radio the original entertainment
RADIO: THE ORIGINAL ENTERTAINMENT
  • Sales of radios greatly increased in the 1930s, from 13 million in 1930 to 28 million by 1940
  • Nearly 90% of American homes owned a radio

Families spent hours listening to the radio

live news coverage
LIVE NEWS COVERAGE
  • Radio captured news as well as providing entertainment
  • One of the first worldwide broadcasts was the horrific crash of the Hindenburg, a German Zeppelin (blimp), in New Jersey on May 6, 1937
  • Such immediate news coverage became a staple in society

The Hindenburg caught fire and was utterly destroyed within a minute Of the 97 people on board, 13 passengers and 22 crew-members were killed

artists heralded
ARTISTS HERALDED
  • Painters like Edward Hopper, Thomas Hart Benton, and Iowa’s Grant Wood were all made famous by their work in the WPA program
  • Photographer Dorothea Lange gained fame from her photos during this era.
writers depict american life
WRITERS DEPICT AMERICAN LIFE
  • The Federal Writers’ Project (branch of WPA) paid writers to write
  • Richard Wright’s acclaimed Native Son was written for the project
john steinbeck receives acclaim
JOHN STEINBECK RECEIVES ACCLAIM
  • American writer John Steinbeck received assistance from the Federal Writers’ Project
  • He published his most famous book, Grapes of Wrath (1939), as part of the program
    • The Grapes of Wrath depicted “okies” fleeing the Dust Bowl for California.
the impact of the new deal
THE IMPACT OF THE NEW DEAL
  • Over time, opinions about the merits of the New Deal and FDR have ranged from harsh criticism to high praise – usually along partisan lines
  • Conservatives felt FDR made government too large and too powerful
  • Liberals countered that FDR socialized the economy because Americans needed help
legacies of the new deal
LEGACIES OF THE NEW DEAL
  • FDIC– banking insurance critical to sound economy
  • Deficit spendinghas became a normal feature of government
  • Social Security is a key legacy of the New Deal in that the Feds have assumed a greater responsibility for the social welfare of citizens since 1935