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Principles for Sustainable Regional Planning and Management in Thailand: Some CommentsH. Detlef Kammeier Seminar on National and Regional Planning: A Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Country Bangkok, 21 March 2002 Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002
Who is this speaker? • Last speaker of the day --- hard to grab the attention... • Farang จริงๆ? ลูกครึ่ง? • Honorary or adopted Thai? • Long-term observer who is both sympathetic and critical... Objectives: Some comments on the - wonderful - new drive of the DTCP Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002
Permanent Regions: (a) Administrative Regions Five macro-regions too large Changwat too small Multi-Changwat regions (b) Natural Regions Watersheds Coastal zones “Economic Programme Regions”: International triangles, quadrangles, etc. Border towns + hinterlands Eastern Seaboard Economic development corridors Regions Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002
Sub-regionalization proposed by NESDB Spatial Development Framework (NESDB, 1997) Pragmatic mix of administrative, economic and natural-area criteria for dividing the country into ten functional development zones Basis: Comparative economic advantages, protection of natural resources, multiple changwat regions Long-term, macro-area development objectives, 30-year perspective The crucial question: Have all agencies concerned agreed upon it? Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002
Dealing with Externalities (positive and negative) Development of a nation and its regions: Everything is interconnected at all levels, from the top to the bottom This requires both: • Division into ministerial and departmental responsibilities (vertical), and • Strong horizontal connections and enforcement Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002
Principles: Planning hierarchy and feed-back • The Constitution: Fundamental principles, rights, responsibilities • Long-term development framework - non-spatial plus spatial • Five-year plans prioritizing resource allocation • Vertical programmes and plans (highways, energy, water, e.g.) • Special economic and spatial coordination mechanisms (horizontal) • Intermediate provincial plans, local plans (mainly horizontal) • Local development control and permit management Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002
Principles: Bottom-up plus top-down Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002
Land owners’ rights are exaggerated Privatizing all gains of land development and leaving the losses to the public agencies This leads to: Ribbon development, excessive fragmentation, inefficient use of scarce resources, environmental chaos Responsibilities? All land ownership carries a social responsibility Building on private land only with permit, not as an inherent right Socially responsible use of land requires close links between land use policies and taxation laws Private Land Ownership: Rights and Responsibilities Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002
Rich provincial-level plans and programmes 1. Since 1971: Provincial five-year plans (including กชช) 2. Since 1981: Changwat Structure Plan 3. Since 1986: Natural Resources and Environmental Plan 4. Since 1991: Strategic Development Plan (longer-term) 5. Since 1993: Investment Plan >>> Too many plans in parallel, too much overlap, not enough follow-up; two types of programmes/plans are sufficient: spatial-environmental plus investment/management Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002
Weak Points of the Thai Urban Planning System • General Plan OK in principle, but no functional Local Plan • General Plan too loose, too soon out of date (5-year limit) • Infrastructure-led development (mainly highways) but Highway Dept. not responsible for projecting/monitoring development • The most important function of any General Plan is to coordinate all public agencies concerned even before guiding private land use • The Local Plan should be the basis for building permits • This requires a new type of Local Plan to be developed and used Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002
Decentralization under the Constitution This is not a five- or ten-year process but it requires a full generation of 30 years Four definitions of “decentralization”: 1.Political/democratic process ADVANCED 2. Administrative reform MOVING 3. Fiscal reform MOVING 4. Economic (privatization) ALREADY THERE, ANYWAY Vertical and horizontal directions Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002
Philosopher/Ruler High Political power Local Politician Local Planner Capacity Planning Scientist Low Low High Scientific knowledge Knowledge versus Power Nat’l Politician Local Politician Local Planner Regional Planning Seminar, 21 March 2002