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Sustainable Manufacturing Manufacturing Systems Analysis Professor: Nour El Kadri e-mail: nelkadri @ Sustainable Manufacturing. Origins of Sustainable Manufacturing: Sustainability Sustainable Manufacturing Concepts & Examples Principles of Sustainability        

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Sustainable ManufacturingManufacturing Systems AnalysisProfessor: Nour El Kadrie-mail: nelkadri@
sustainable manufacturing
Sustainable Manufacturing

Origins of Sustainable Manufacturing: Sustainability

Sustainable Manufacturing Concepts & Examples

Principles of Sustainability        




origins of sustainable manufacturing sustainability
Origins of Sustainable Manufacturing: Sustainability





Product Complexity



Part Precision

sustainable manufacturing4
Sustainable Manufacturing
  • Manufacturing is known as a “process by which materials are removed, conserved, and added for the purpose of making products.” [Dorfeld, 2008] This has traditionally been an inefficient process which is resource and energy intensive and has not yet reached a sustainable state.
  • There are many contemporary frameworks which exist to guide understanding and application of sustainable practices in the world of manufacturing. There are also many tools, methodologies and collections of metrics used to apply these frameworks.
  • Sustainable Manufacturing
    • principles
    • methods
    • metrics

Principles, Methods & Metrics

Social, Economic & Environmental Themes

sustainable manufacturing concepts examples
Sustainable Manufacturing Concepts & Examples
  • Principles embody certain collections of values which have come to be associated with sustainability concerns at different scopes and scales.
  • (Analytical) methods, (action-oriented) guidelines/scorecards/criteria/decision-making strategies and (evaluatory) regulations/standards are guided by principles. Some agencies create a variety of principles, methods, standards, and regulations that work to address their cause throughout the product lifecycle.
  • Collections of metrics are used by methods and make up regulations
  • The values embedded in all of these concepts evolve from sustainability's core which requires balancing issues related to ecology/environment, economy/employment and equity/equality


Design Guidelines

Scorecards, Checklists & Criteria

Analytical methods

Regulations & Standards



Guide analysis and action:



Principles of Ecological Design

Design for Disassembly

Community/Labor &Ecology

Houston Principles

Waste Reduction (Affects the Biosphere and Business)

Circular Economy

Cradle to Cradle

Industrial Ecology

Management of Natural Resources in the Biosphere and in Commerce (Managing Impact while Balancing Interests and Values)

Precautionary principle

Natural Step

5 Capitals Model

Triple Bottom Line

Environmental Health & Safety

Green Chemistry



SCP - Sustainable Packaging

Wal-mart - Sustainable Packaging

SPA – Sustainable Packaging

Sustainable Biomaterials Collaborative – Sustainable Packaging

Source: Edwards, A. R. The sustainability revolution. New Society Publishers. 2002

houston principles
Houston Principles


“Remind the public that the original purpose behind the creation of corporations was to serve the public interest

Seek stricter enforcement of labor laws and advocate for new laws to guarantee working people their right to form organizing.

Make workplaces, communities and the planet safer by reducing waste and greenhouse gas emissions.

Demand that global trade agreements include enforceable labor and environmental standards.

Promote forward-thinking business models that allow for sustainability over the long term while protecting working people, communities, and the environment.”

  • State that the future of a healthy economy and environment are tied, and that labor, environmental and community groups need to work together to take action against corporate power, the undermining of democratic processes and ensure that interests in long-term sustainability are the aim of short-term actions.
  • Created to hold corporations accountable for their impact on:
    • Working people,
    • Communities and
    • The Environment
cradle to cradle
Cradle to Cradle

In Cradle to Cradle, McDonough and Braungart (2002) note that a regenerative environment, like a cherry tree, is sustainable.

It is a closed loop where Waste (of the system)=(the same system’s) Food.

A manufacturing system can function under those same ideals.

This concept stresses eco-effectiveness, quality prior to quantity, and biological and technical resource cycles which recycle in a manner that instead of “downcycling” the quality of materials, upcycles or regenerates.

“The goal is a delightfully diverse safe and just world with clean air soil power and water economically, equitably, ecologically and elegantly enjoyed.”

Source: Cradle to Cradle by William McDonough & Michael Braungart North Point Press, 2002

sustainable packaging coalition
Sustainable Packaging Coalition

“to advocate and communicate a positive, robust environmental vision for packaging and to support innovative, functional packaging materials and systems that promote economic and environmental health through supply chain collaboration”

– Sustainable Packaging Coalition

Sustainable packaging:

Is beneficial, safe & healthy for individuals and communities throughout its life cycle;

Meets market criteria for performance and cost;

Is sourced, manufactured, transported, and recycled using renewable energy;

Maximizes the use of renewable or recycled source materials;

Is manufactured using clean production technologies and best practices;

Is made from materials healthy in all probable end of life scenarios;

Is physically designed to optimize materials and energy;

Is effectively recovered and utilized in biological and/or industrial cradle to cradle cycles.


wal mart s sustainable packaging principles
Wal-Mart’s Sustainable Packaging Principles


Reduce packaging across global supply chain by 5 percent by 2013 ($3.4 billion of savings)

“The primary goal of the Packaging Sustainable Value Network is to be packaging neutral by 2025, which means all packaging recovered or recycled at our stores and Clubs will be equal to the amount of packaging used by the products on our shelves.”

Also: 100% Renewable Energy, Zero Waste, Sustain Environment and Resources

Principles: “7 R’s”








Image from “The Greening of Wal-Mart”


sustainable packaging alliance sustainable packaging principles
Sustainable Packaging Alliance -Sustainable Packaging Principles

4 sustainability principles need to be met by packaging:

effective - provide social and economic benefits;

efficient - provide benefits by using materials, energy and water as efficiently as possible;

cyclic - be recoverable through industrial or natural systems; and

safe - non-polluting and non-toxic.


sustainable biomaterials collaborative
Sustainable Biomaterials Collaborative

They define a sustainable biomaterial as:

(1) sourced from sustainably grown and harvested cropland or forests,

(2) manufactured without hazardous inputs and impacts,

(3) healthy and safe for the environment during use, and

(4) designed to be reutilized at the end of their intended use such as via recycling or composting.

Core principles include:

Reduce the amount of material, product and packaging used;

Eliminate single-use products that can be neither recycled or composted;

Avoid fossil-fuel-based materials in favor of materials and products derived from renewable feedstocks;

Address sustainability across the life cycle of the material: the growing of the feedstock, manufacturing of the biomaterial and final product, using the product and reclaiming the material at the end of its original use;

Define sustainability to include issues of environment, health, and social and economic justice;

Design and use products that are reusable, recyclable or compostable;

Encourage agricultural systems that are sustainable for farmers, the environment, farm workers and communities;

Support small- to mid-sized family owned and operated farms;

Do not use genetically modified organisms in agricultural feedstock production;

Use chemicals that meet the 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

Avoid engineered nanomaterials and chemicals that have not been tested for environmental and public health effects across the lifecycle; and

Decentralize production and buy local to reduce the environmental footprint of production, transportation, and consumption.

we call it
“We call it

Plan A

because there is no Plan B.” – Marks & Spencer

A 5 year plan based on 100 Points

5 Pillars, each with a primary goal for 2012:

Climate Change - Become carbon neutral

Waste - Send no waste to landfill

Sustainable Raw Materials - Extend sustainable sourcing

Health - Help improve the lives of people in our supply chain

Fair Partner - Help customers and employees live a healthier life-style

Goals with Regard to Packaging

Reduce Use of Packaging by 25 %

Use materials from sustainable or recycled sources (cardboard, metal, glass and plastic)

Restrict range of materials to ones that are easy to recycle or compost

Print simple symbols on packaging

Reduce use of carrier beds by 33% and make all bags from recycled plastics



Action-oriented Design Guidelines



Wal-Mart Package Modeling


IPEN Guidelines

Scorecards, Checklists & Criteria

Wal-Mart Scorecard


Analytical Methods

Lifecycle Analysis (Process,EIO, Hybrid)

Footprints (Ecological, Carbon, Water)



Evaluative Regulations & Standards

European Commission

Extended Producer Responsibility

Environmental Product Declaration

Sustainable Product Standard


Management Tools

Strength Weakness Opportunities Threats Analysis (SWOT Analysis)

Environmental management system

Integrated chain management (ICM)

Design guidelines

Oriented around principles

Meant to be simple

Aided by decision-making tools

Often voluntary – used by private companies, gov and ngo



Often used to check progress

Hard to compare tradeoffs

Implicit assumptions

Innovative changes often not captured

Analytical tools

Company specific data, processes, assumptions etc.

Used to track improvement


Give direction or target for industry

Specific goal(s) (EOL, waste etc)

Top-down rather than bottom-up approach

Slide from:

design guidelines
Design Guidelines

Includes various design strategy sections:

Design sustainably

Design for transport

Design with environmental best practice

Design with fair labor and trade practices

Design with renewable virgin materials

Design for reuse

Design for recycling

Design for composting


wrap s guide to evolving packaging design
WRAP’s Guide to Evolving Packaging Design

Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP) runs programs to support UK government legislation and private initiatives.

Design Guidelines focus on waste reduction and material checklists, specifically:

Waste hierarchy is applied to packaging

The material checklist weighs pros and cons of each material

  • Future plans include aiming for specific goals beyond waste reduction, (incorporating measures of “carbon, recycled content, recyclability and behavioral change.”) [Five Winds International]
responsible packaging code of practice
Responsible Packaging Code of Practice

From the UK, 2nd ed. in 2003.

7 parameters:

Function of packaging through the supply chain

Honesty in presentation

Convenience in use

Instructions, guidance and information

Legal requirements

Health, safety and consumer protection

Environmental aspects

Innovation in materials and products (resource efficiency)

System considerations (packaging should improve sustainability of system and reduce was through system)

Space and weight efficiency (for transportation)


Process waste (at all points in supply chain)

Best practice with materials (enable recovery)

Energy recovery and material recycling



s sustainable packaging scorecard
’s Sustainable Packaging Scorecard

Scorecard is based on the MERGE Tool template

A supplier’s score, whether for secondary, tertiary or primary packaging follows this formula:

15% based on carbon dioxide per ton of production (only material manufacturing emissions are measured)

15% based on material value

15% based on product-to- package ratio

15% based on cube utilization

10% based on transportation

10% based on recycled content

10% based on recovery value

5% based on renewable energy

5% based on innovation

scj greenlisttm packaging criteria
SCJ GreenlistTM Packaging Criteria

Rates raw materials on 8 criteria (focus on material, supplier practices and product EOL)

Packaging Minimization

Design for Recyclability

Design for Reusability

Sound Materials Selection

Increased Use of Post Consumer Recycled Content

Use of Renewable Resources

Selection of Printing Methods and Materials

Selection of Environmentally Conscious Supply Partners

Each of these criteria has additional metrics associated with different packaging materials (glass, paper, rigid plastic, metal).

Final score is made by averaging each criteria score

Products are categorized on a “better,” “best” scale

Used to phase out materials, and will license to others


life cycle analysis
Life Cycle Analysis

Three scopes

Cradle to gate

Cradle to grave

Cradle to cradle

Three types

Process LCA (addresses environmental inputs and outputs)

EIO LCA (addresses economic inputs and outputs)


process lca vs
Process LCA vs. Hybrid LCA


Input-Output LCA


bottom-up approach

Focus on environmental impacts of individual components/products



Does not include second order, only on-site data/processes

Identification of boundaries of analysis is more difficult for large organizations

Current best practice

Embeds process systems inside input-output tables

There is danger of double counting


top-down approach

able to use economic tables


large picture, grand scheme view


assumes price, output and carbon homogeneity for sectors

sectors can only be split up to examine so far

ecological footprints
Ecological Footprints

An ecological footprint is a measure of resource management/use which refers to the amount of global hectares* required to sustain the life/practices being examined. Global hectares are hectares with average global productivity.

The measure is calculated by comparing the biological resources available in a given region (accounting for its ability to create food and absorb waste using status quo technology and practices) to resource demands of an activity/population

Ecological Footprint Standards have been developed and adopted by the majority of users. Details of these standards are available at, which is managed by the Global Footprint Network.

Standards help to address calculation nuances, including conversions, measure of land/sea parcels, address nuclear power, varying data sources, import/export data and biodiversity etc.

Origin of the per capita ecological footprint (EF) (to highlight differences in lifestyles), carbon footprint (emphasizing the climate change trigger Co2), water footprint (water-centric metric)

Similar to a metric of a more complete life cycle analysis but for the conversion to global hectares.

Use with the Living Planet Index of biodiversity from the WWF, or a adaptation of the footprint like Lenzen & Murray’s calculation for Australia is suggested in order to compensate for the metric’s omissions.

carbon footprints
Carbon Footprints

A carbon footprint calculation measures the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions caused by the activity/instance being measured. This includes direct and indirect emissions.

Scope varies

“As commonly used today, for example, the term ‘carbon footprint’ often refers to the number of tonnes of carbon emitted by a given person or business during a year, or to the tonnes of carbon emitted in the manufacture and transport of a product. In Ecological Footprint accounts, the ‘carbon Footprint’ measures the amount of biological capacity, in global hectares, demanded by human emissions of fossil carbon dioxide.” - Global Footprint Standard

Others may address all GHG, only carbon, include/exclude CO, and reflect lifecycle of goods and services (Haven, 2007)

Measures differ

"weight" vs. "footprint“

Weight already used in calculations, therefore it does not require additional conversions to area measures

Emphasizes need for carbon “diets”

water footprint
Water Footprint

Calculations require determining three different water footprints:

blue water = surface water and ground water

green water = rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture.

In the 2 above cases, the associated footprint is the volume of water that evaporated from the water type’s total.

The grey water footprint is the volume of polluted water that associates with the production of all goods and services for the individual or community.

“The water footprint of a nation is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the people of the nation. Since not all goods consumed in one particular country are produced in that country, the water footprint consists of two parts: use of domestic water resources and use of water outside the borders of the country.” - [Hoekstra, A.Y. 2007,p 36]

The concept was created to serve as an indicator of water use, as related to consumption. The calculation takes into account direct and indirect use and is calculated by volume evaporated/polluted in a period of time. It is related to the concept of virtual water, “defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service.”

basf eco efficiency analysis tool
BASF Eco-efficiency Analysis Tool

A decision-making analytical tool which uses LCA standards

Notes economic , environmental and social metrics

6 environmental parameters:

Raw materials consumption

Energy consumption

Land use

Air and water emissions and disposal methods

Potential toxicity

Potential risks

european directive 94 62 ec on packaging and packaging waste
European Directive 94/62/EC on Packaging and Packaging Waste

Requires that systems to deal with used packaging must be created to meet % goals by weight. For example:

“by no later than 31 December 2011, between 55 and 80% by weight of packaging waste to be Recycled”

A target-setting process is repeated every five years to keep the goals up to date.

Focuses attention on:

Total amount of packaging recovered, recycled or incinerated

Packaging volume and weight

Minimize noxious and other hazardous substances and materials

Legal requirements for limits of cadmium, hexavalent chromium (chrome IV), lead and mercury



European Standards Institute (CEN) created 6 standards to help companies improve the environmental status of their packaging.

Addressed: manufacturing, composition reuse, recycling, energy recovery, composting, and the application of the management systems approach.

common elements
Common Elements

Only a few organizations worked to create principles, methods and metrics meant to support a coordinated vision

Social indicators of sustainability were largely ignored

Ability to provide guidance and educate at the same time, in a time effective manner was lacking

Wide audiences made targeted guidance (whether for consumers, or on material use for designers etc.) rare

There is a lack of procedural guidance for action and decision making, rather than high-level suggestions on examining the entire product system.

Different regulatory traditions influence effectiveness

Information gathered by relevant agents is not always freely available

Striking the balance between promoting change, facilitating change, and measuring change had not been reached

Methodologies included a collection of important metrics/indicators

Large investments in time and upkeep are required

Varying levels of academic rigor

The methods were created by varied stakeholders and often for multiple audiences

metrics indicators


Data to information

Inferences from quantitative analysis

An indicator is a qualitative value which can be assigned different metrics and a metric can be calculated in different ways notes 4 ways to organize indicators:

Category or issue lists – easy to comprehend

Goal/indicator matrix – emphasis comprehensiveness

Driving force-state-response tables – emphasis on impact

Endowments, liabilities, current results, and processes table categories- emphasis on longer term

Issues with measures – much depends on use

How variables are weighted or optimized,

Picking the right number to use can be difficult

Openness and transparency increases credibility


sustainable metrics project
Sustainable Metrics Project

Recently launched

Developing a core set of performance indicators to measure the sustainability of packaging and packaging systems.

Will be published after feedback from SPC members

collections of metrics
Collections of Metrics



UN Indicators of Sustainable Development


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s) Science Advisory Board


Cradle to Cradle Certification Matrix

Global Reporting Initiative

Living Planet Report

Global Footprint

Redefining Progress


Metrics from the Wal-mart Scorecard

SCJ Greenlist Packaging Criteria for Specific Materials

MERGE Metrics

tools software
Tools/ Software

There are many tools and software available.



The Environmental Impact Estimator - by the ATHENA™ Sustainable Materials Institute.

BEES 3.0 - by National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Building and Fire Research Laboratory.

CMLCA - by Centre of Environmental Science (CML) - Leiden University..

Sustainable Packaging Coalition- COMPASS

Eco-Indicator 99 - by PRé Consultants.

ECO-it 1.3 - by PRé Consultants.

EcoScan 3.0 - by TNO Industrial Technology.

Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment - by Green Design Initiative of Carnegie Mellon.

EDIP PC-tool ( - by Danish EPA.

The Environmental Impact Estimator - by the ATHENA™ Sustainable Materials Institute.

EPS 2000 Design System - by Assess Ecostrategy Scandinavia AB.

GaBi 4 Software System and Databases - by PE Europe GmbH and IKP University of Stuttgart.

GEMIS (Global Emission Model for Integrated Systems) - by Öko-Institut.

GREET Model- The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation

IVAM LCA Data 4.0 - by IVAM.

KCL-ECO 4.0 - by KCL.

LCAiT 4 - by CIT Ekologik.

LCAPIX - by KM Limited.

MIET 3.0 - Missing Inventory Estimation Tool - by Centre of Environmental Science (CML).

REGIS - by Sinum.

SimaPro 7 - by PRé Consultants.

SPOLD Data Exchange Software - by The Society for Promotion of Life-cycle Assessment.

TEAM™ - by Pricewaterhouse Coopers Ecobilan Group.

Umberto - by Institute for Environmental Informatics, Hamburg.

WISARD™ - by Pricewaterhourse Coopers Ecobilan Group.

  • Data
    • The Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME)
    • The Boustead Model 5.0 - by Boustead Consulting.
    • The ecoinvent Centre - The Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories central database of LCI data and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods data.
    • IDEMAT 2005 - by Delft University of Technology.
    • Life-Cycle Inventory Database - by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
    • SPINE@CPM - by CPM -
summary themes
Summary: Themes

The influence of qualitative principles can be directly and indirectly seen through design guidelines, analytical methodologies, and regulations.

Methods can address economic, environmental or equity concerns, with unique scopes and emphasis

Approaches, users, and lifecycle stages covered are varied

Tools are numerous and for as many purposes and audiences as there are methods

There is no one solution

Identification of goals, scope, audience is crucial to developing benchmarks and quantitative indicators

Necessities are not often distinguished from best practices

final thought complex tradeoffs
Final Thought: Complex Tradeoffs

“Would a carbon label on every product help us?” he asked. “I wonder. You can feel very good about the organic potatoes you buy from a farm near your home, but half the emissions—and half the footprint—from those potatoes could come from the energy you use to cook them. If you leave the lid off, boil them at a high heat, and then mash your potatoes, from a carbon standpoint you might as well drive to McDonald’s and spend your money buying an order of French fries.”

-Murlis, quoted in an article by M. Specter , “Big Foot.” The New Yorker. February 25, 2008


The packaging industry is not sustainable

Motivating factors for packaging manufacturing changes include

Regulatory Mandates (stick)

Economic Advantage (carrot)

Change is hindered by a vague regulatory environment, lack of informed customers and missing infrastructure

Qualitative guidelines exists, but concrete quantitative guiding measures, optimized for sustainable packaging, are needed

Further detailed analysis is needed to correlate qualitative concepts with quantitative metrics and parse best practices from necessities

academic journals
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering

Journal of Packaging Technology and Science

Journal of Sustainable Product Design

The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

European Platform on Life Cycle Assessment

Ecoinvent – Swiss Center For life cycle inventories

Journal of Cleaner Production?

International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management

Australasian Bioplastics Association (ABA

Journal of sustainable product design

Environmental Impact Assessment Review

Management of Environmental Quality

The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

Journal of Cleaner Production

Journal of Industrial Ecology

Academic Journals
academic departments
Academic Departments
  • California Polytechnic State University
  • Clemson University
  • Fashion Institute of Technology
  • Indiana State University
  • Michigan State University School of Packaging
  • Rochester Institute of Technology
  • San Jose State University
  • School for Military Packaging Technology
  • University of California - Berkeley
  • University of Florida
  • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • University of Missouri-Rolla
  • University of Wisconsin-Stout
  • Virginia Tech
  • Western Michigan University


  • Natureworks LLC
  • Nutec: Nutrients - Upcycling - Triple Topline - Effectiveness - Community
  • European Bioplastics Conference
  • Sustainable Packaging Essentials
  • Sustainable Packaging Forum
  • (Past) Developing Sustainable Approaches to Design-Make-Serve Cambridge, UK
industry publications forums
Industry Publications & Forums
  • Adhesive & Sealent Council
  • Pressure Sensitive Tape Council
  • Biodegradable Products Institute
  • Textile Bag manufactures association
  • Glass Packaging Institute
  • Glass Products Institute
  • Glass Technology Services (GTS):
  • British Plastics Federation (BPF):
industry publications forums40
Industry Publications & Forums
  • Packaging and Label Gravure Association
  • Printing Industries of America, INC
  • Private Label Manufactures Association www.plma.ocom
  • The Vinyl Institute
  • Aluminum
  • Aluminum Association
  • Aluminum Foil Container Manufacturers Association
  • Can Manufacturers Institute
  • Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc.
  • Metal Packaging Manufacturers Association (MPMA):
  • Steel Recycling Institute
industry publications forums packaging
Industry Publications & Forums PACKAGING
  • Aseptic Packaging Council
  • Flexible Packaging Association
  • The Packaging Federation:
  • The Packaging Solutions Advice Group (PSAG):
  • Pro-Carton UK:
  • Processing & Packaging Machinery Association (PPMA):
  • Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD):
  • Institute of Packaging (IoP):
  • Institute of Packaging Professionals
  • International Beverage Packaging association
  • European Carton Makers Association (ECMA):
  • Industry Council for Packaging in the Environment (INCPEN):
  • Liquid Food Carton Manufacturers Association (LFCMA):
  • Northa American Packaging Association
  • National Recycling Coalition
  • National Resource Recovery Association
  • National Association of Suppliers of Printing/Publishing Technology
  • Packaging and Industrial Films Association (PIFA):
  • Packaging Machinery Manufacturers Institute
  • Produce Marketing Association
  • Retail Packaging Manufacturers Association
  • World Packaging Organization
industry publications forums plastic
Industry Publications & Forums PLASTIC
  • American Chemistry Council
  • Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers www.american
  • Center for Plastic Recycling research
  • Film and Bag Federation
  • Rigid Plastic Packaging Group
  • Society of Plastics
  • Society of the Plastics Industry
  • National Association for PET Container Resources
  • National Association of Container Distributors
  • Plastic Shipping Container Institute
  • Plastics Foodservice Packaging Group
  • Society of the Plastics Industries
  • Society of Plastics Engineers www.
industry publications forums foam
Industry Publications & Forums FOAM
  • Alliance of Foam packaging Recyclers
  • Solid waste Association of North America
  • Closure Manufacturers Association
  • The Tube Council
  • Composite Can & Tube Institute
  • Consumer Products Manufactures Association
  • Contract Packaging Association
  • Design Management Institute
  • Environmental Industry Association
  • Flexible Intermediate Bulk Container Association
  • Flexible Packaging Association
  • Food Marketing Institute
  • Food Processing Suppliers Association
  • Foodservice & Packaging Institute
  • Gravure Association of America
  • Grocery Manufacturers of America
  • International Safe Transit Association
  • Keep America Beautiful
industry publications forums44
Industry Publications & Forums
  • Fibre Box Association
  • Forest Products Society www.


  • Association of Independent Corrugated Converters
  • American Forest and Paper Association
  • Boxboard Research & Development Association
  • Confederation of Paper Industries (CPI):
  • Fibre Box Association
  • International Molded Fibre Association
  • National Wooden Pallet & Container Association
  • Paper Recycling Coalition
  • Paperboard Packaging Council
  • Recycled Paperboard Alliance
  • Recycled Paperboard Technical Association
  • Reusable Pallet and Container Coalition
  • TAPPI – Technical Association of the Pulp & Paper Industry
  • Tag & Label Manufacturers Institute Inc. www.
  • National Wooden Pallet & Container Association
government organizations
Government Organizations
  • U.S. Business Council for Sustainable Development
  • CA Integrated Waste Management Board Robert Carlson
  • EPA – Office of Solid Waste
  • Department of Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
  • Container Recycling Institute
  • Environmental Defense
  • Green Blue
  • Green Peace
  • IERE
  • Keep America Beautiful
  • National Recycling Coalition
  • Rocky Mountain Institute
  • The Design Council
  • Envirowise:
  • Forest Stewardship Council (FSC):
  • Forum for the Future:
  • London remade / Closed Loop London:
non sustainability factors of importance to manufacturers consumers
Non-Sustainability factors of importance to manufacturers & consumers
  • Price
  • Barrier protection:
    • Toughness
    • Tensile strength
    • Thickness
    • Seal-ability
  • Permeability (oxygen can cause changes in product color, odor and taste; and nutrient loss, product rancidity and microbial spoilage)
  • Surface friction
  • Shrink-ability
  • Aesthetics: color, transparency, & clarity
more references
More References
  • Principals: D. Dornfeld (ME), PI, M. Taylor (GSPP) Berkeley, J. Greene (ME) CSU-Chico