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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970

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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970. What do you do when a friend is accused? What happens when two people stop being friendly because of conflicting personalities or ideas?. Cold War?. The tension and rivalry between the USA and the USSR was described as the Cold War (1945-1990).

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The EarlyCold War:1947-1970

What do you do when a friend is accused?

What happens when two people stop being friendly because of conflicting personalities or ideas?

cold war
Cold War?
        • The tension and rivalry between the USA and the USSR was described as the Cold War (1945-1990).
  • - Never a real war between the

two sides between 1945 and 1990, but

they were often very close to war Hotspots

- Both sides got involved in other conflicts

in the world to either stop or spread


**What else caused the “tension”???


The Ideological Struggle

Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”]

US & the Western Democracies

GOAL spread world-wide Communism

GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.

  • Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]
  • Arms Race [nuclear escalation]
  • Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

The “Iron Curtain”

From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

many countries became communist after world war 2 including
Many countries became communist after World War 2 including:
  • Czechoslovakia (1948)
  • Poland (1947)
  • Hungary (1947)
  • Romania
  • China (1949)
  • Cuba (1959)
  • North Korea (1945)

Truman Doctrine [1947]

  • Civil War in Greece.
  • Turkey under pressure from the USSR to give up land-Dardanelles.
  • “The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.”
  • The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.

Marshall Plan [1948]

  • “European Recovery Program.”
  • Secretary of State, George Marshall
  • The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.
  • $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].

The Arms Race:A “Missile Gap?”

  • The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.
  • Now there were two nuclear superpowers!

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)

  • United States
  • Belgium
  • Britain
  • Canada
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Iceland
  • Italy
  • Luxemburg
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • 1952: Greece & Turkey
  • 1955: West Germany
  • 1983: Spain

Warsaw Pact (1955)

  • U. S. S. R.
  • Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Czechoslovakia
  • East Germany
  • Hungary
  • Poland
  • Rumania

The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953)

Divided along the 38th parallel

“Domino Theory”—if one country falls to communism, others will follow

north vs south
North vs South
  • Stop the spread of communism into South Korea—fighting North Korea/China

Syngman Rhee—South Korea

Kim Sung-North Korea

1950 1953
  • 520,000 troops, 90% American-led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur-South
  • 590,000 troops-North
  • When Americans get to Yalu River, war becomes fight between China and US
  • MacArthur wants to invade China with nukes—Truman says “NO”(China in mutual assistance pact with Soviets, would become WW 3!!), FIRES MacArthur—Soviets suggest cease fire June 1951—2 years haggling=stalemate
legacy of the forgotten war
Legacy of the “Forgotten War”
  • 54,000 American lives
  • $67 BILLION
  • Americans reject Democratic Party and elect a Republican in 1952-WW 2 hero Eisenhower
  • Increased fear of Communist aggression
  • Prompted a hunt for Communists

Premier Nikita Khrushchev

About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956

De-Stalinization Program

cold war @ home hysterical legislation
Cold War @ HomeHysterical Legislation
  • Federal Employee Loyalty Program-investigate gov’t employees/dismiss those found to be disloyal to US
  • 3.2 million investigated, 212 fired, 2,900 quit
  • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
  • Legalized witch hunts
  • Hollywood film industry targeted because they made PRO-Soviet Union movies during WW 2 (Soviets were our ally then)
  • “Hollywood Ten” blacklisted-refused to name names
hysterical legislation cont
Hysterical Legislation cont.
  • McCarran Internal Security Act- unlawful to plan any action that might lead to the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship in US..
  • Truman vetoed it
  • Congress passes it
spy cases
Spy Cases
  • Alger Hiss-State Department official found guilty of perjury (couldn’t prove espionage) R. Nixon prosecuting attorney
  • Rosenbergs-leaking scientific info to SU to build atomic bomb..sentenced to death (electric chair 1953)
  • Unfair tactic of accusing people of disloyalty without providing evidence
  • Senate inquisition into non-patriotic acts, ruins numerous careers
  • McCarthy attacks Army, Senate investigation (televised)..bullying and no evidence=loses favor
  • Dies a broken alcoholic man
  • Cause/Effect p. 621
living on the edge
Living on the Edge
  • Brinkmanship-US willing to go to all out war, smaller Army/Navy, larger Air Force(it could drop the H-bomb)
  • Fear of Nuclear War lasted 30 years
  • NATO-Warsaw Pact map p. 624

Stalin’s death in 1953 thawed cold relations temporarily—Geneva Summit


The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957

Egypt ultimately retains control of the canal

eisenhower doctrine
Eisenhower Doctrine
  • Issued to counterbalance Soviets presence during Suez War
  • January 1957—The U.S. will defend the Middle East against any attack by any communist country

Sputnik I (1957)

Soviet Union beats America into space—artificial satellite; U.S. launches satellite in January 1958

Big Brother starts “watching”


U-2 Spy Incident (1960)

Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace—we were spying

Eisenhower refuses to

apologize to Soviet

leader Krushchev…

the 60’s begin with even

MORE tension between

the superpowers