The Indian Independence Movement, 1905-1947. Mr. Cargile Mission Hills HS, San Marcos CA. A. The Land and the People. India: 18c-early 19c. India in mid-18c. British Soldiers in India, 1830s. Areas of the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857. A. The Land and the People.
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Mission Hills HS, San Marcos CA
and the People
~ 1900 = 250 million
~ 1941 = 389 million
~ environmental pressure,
~ and a declining amount of farm land per family.
Indian society was divided into many classes:
~ wealthy property owners,
~ and urban craftsmen, traders, &
B. English became the common medium of communication of the Western-educated middle class.
C. Majority of Indians practiced Hinduism. Muslims constituted ¼ of the people of India & formed a majority in the N/W & in eastern Bengal.
Colonial India was ruled by a viceroy & administered by the Indian Civil Service.
B. At the turn of the century, the majority of Indians accepted British rule, but the racism & discrimination of the Euros had inspired a group of Hindus to est. a political organization called the Indian National Congress in 1885.
C. Muslims, fearful of Hindu dominance, founded the All-India Muslim League in 1906, thus giving India not one, but two Independence movements.
1876 - 1948
Indian soldiers from the so-called warrior castes had long been a critical factor in imperial Britain's global power. These Indian troops, preparing for the Battle of the Somme in 1916 during World War I, ironically appear to be out for a pleasant bicycling excursion. Dispatched to France in October 1914, most Indian soldiers were moved to western Asia in 1915 to fight against the Ottoman Empire.
D. In 1918 & 1919 several incidents contributed to an increase in tensions btw the British & the Indian people.
E. These incidents included a too-vague promise of self-government, the influenza epidemic of 1918-1919, &
1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies
50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
F. and the incident in which a British general ordered his troops to fire into a crowd of 10,000 demonstrators.
Amritsar Massacre, 1919
379 dead; over 1200 wounded!
In response to episodes of anticolonialist violence in Amritsar, India, early in 1919, the British brutally cracked down, most notably in the massacre of April 1919. Here British authorities enforce a decree in the wake of the beating of a female British doctor on this road--forcing any Indian using the road to crawl along it.
1869 - 1948
Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi was an English-educated lawyer who practiced in S. Africa before returning to India & joining the Indian National Congress during WWI.
Gandhi’s political ideas included ahimsa (nonviolence) & satyagraha (the search for truth)
Gandhi as a Lawyer in Johannesburg, So. Africa
C. Gandhi dressed & lived simply; his affinity for the poor, the illiterate, and the outcasts made him able to transform the cause of Indian independence from an elite movement to a mass movement w/ a quasi-religious aura.
Gandhi spinning cloth
Mohandas "Mahatma" Gandhi (1969-1948) believed that foreign cotton mills had impoverished the Indian people. He made a bonfire of imported factory-made cloth, decided to wear only handmade cloth, and began spending half an hour every day spinning yarn on a simple spinning wheel, which became the symbol of his movement. Any Indian who wished to come before him had to dress in handwoven cloth.
Gandhi spinning cloth
D. Gandhi’s brilliance as a political tactician & master of public relations gestures was demonstrated in acts such as his
~ 80-mile “Walk to the Sea” to make salt (in
violation of the governments salt monopoly),
~ in his several fasts “unto death,”
~ & in his repeated arrests and prison
A small frail man, Gandhi possessed enormous courage and determination. His campaign of nonviolent resistance to British rule inspired the Indian masses and nurtured national identity and self-confidence. Here he arrives for talks with the British viceroy after the outbreak of World War II.
In the 1920s the British slowly & reluctantly began to give Indians control of areas such as education, the economy, and public works.
High tariff barriers were erected behind which Indian entrepreneurs were able to undertake a degree of industrialization;
D. This helped to create a class of wealthy Indian businessmen who looked to Gandhi’s designated successor in the INC – Jawaharlal Nehru for leadership.
E. WWII divided the Indian people; Indians contributed heavily to the war effort, but the INC opposed the war, and a minority of Indian s joined the Japanese side.
1889 - 1964
of the Raj:
August 15, 1947
Lord Louis & Lady Edwina Montbatten