PERSONALITY • According to Fred Luthans personality is defined as “ how people affect others and how they understand and view themselves as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person- situation intervention”. • People use different terms like good, popular, strong, honest , weak polite etc to denote personality. • Robbins defines personality as , “the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others”. Thus personality devotes the methods of affecting others, reacting to others and interacting with others. • Bin Laden had negative effect on Muslim people, he used his personality to divert innocent Muslim youths towards violence and terrorism in name of god. • Whereas Nelson Mandela directed the south Africans to fight for their rights in a peaceful transformation based on Gandhian principles of non- violence
NATURE OF PERSONALITY • Personality refers to the set of trait and behaviour that characterize an individual. • The following element can be said about personality: • Personality has both internal and external elements • An individuals personality is relatively stable, if it changes at all it is only after a very long time or as a result of traumatic events. • An individuals personality is both inherited as well as shaped by the environment. • Each individuals behaviour is unique. There are striking differences in behaviour of humans.
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY • The prominent theories is theories of personality are: • Type • Trait • Psychoanalytical • Social learning • Humanistic • TYPE THEORY: people are grouped into identifiable categories depending upon their physical characteristics. Kretschmer and Sheldon are credited with this classification. In this theory relationship is established between features of face or body with personality. For e.g. short and plump people are said to be sociable, relaxed and even tempered and thin person as restrained, self- conscious etc. • Another basis to type personality is psychological factors. It is divided into introverts & extroverts. These terms are normally associated to individuals sociability and interpersonal skills. Extroverts are gregarious, sociable while introverts are shy, quiet and retiring.
TRAIT THEORY • Trait theory classifies individuals based on their peculiarity, features, manners, nature and behaviour etc. PSYCHOANALYTICAL THEORY • Psychoanalytical theory was originated by Sigmund Freud. • THE ID: • The id seeks the gratification for biological needs. It is the unconscious part of human personality. the biological needs include: hunger , thirst etc. according to id the man removes the tension of unsatisfied biological needs by forming a mental image of the object, which would satisfy the needs. Thus id concept is related to the imaginary and illusionary world. • THE EGO: • Ego is the conscious and the logical part of human personality. Ego is based on the realities of the external environment through intellect and reason. The Id wants immediate pleasure through imagination but the ego wants real pleasure. For e.g. a fresh management graduate would imagine of a general managers post in an MNC( id), but the realities like job market, competitions from other candidates like CAs, ICWAs etc and recession in the industry will make him/ her realize the reality and would make him to go for a junior management position. (ego). This may result in creating in conflict.
SUPER EGO: • Super ego represent a system of personal and societal values, norms, ethics and attitudes. It acts as an ethical constraint on the behavior. This can be treated as conscience. Super ego acts as a norm to the ego in order to determine which behavior is right and which behavior is wrong. Thus, the super ego judges whether the behavior/ action is correct or incorrect based on the culture, norms and values of the society concerned. • SOCIO- LEARNING THEORY: • This theory states that society and an individual interact with each other. The individual’s behaviour is either learnt or modified by learning. Through learning one acquires knowledge, language, values, manual skills, fears, personality traits and self- insight. • There are two ways to learn: (I) learning through direct experience (II) learning by observing others and their actions and noting the consequences of their actions.
HUMANISTIC APPRAOCH • Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are credited with the humanistic theory of personality. • ROGERS SELF THEORY: • For roger, the behaviour is utterly dependent on how one perceives the world, that is behaviour is the result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by an individual. • MASLOW’S SELF ACTUALISATION THEORY: • This theory treats man as an individual and each person is alone responsible for his own existence. He is always in the process of becoming something different. He tries to use his potential to become useful member of society and to lead a truly authentic and fruitful life.
SHAPING OF PERSONALITY- FREUDIAN STAGE • Sigmund Freud was the first to formulate a systematic theory. According to Freud, childhood events have a bearing on adult behavior and consciousness. He believes that there are five stages of psychological development which influence the personality i.e. oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. • STAGE 1: THE ORAL STAGE • This stage is from the birth up to the age of one year. Infants during this stage depend on others for survival. Excessive or insufficient amounts of stimulation during this stage may lead to the development+ of an oral passive personality while may result in weak characteristic resulting in exploitation and domination of others. • STAGE 2: THE ANAL STAGE • This stage is from the age of one year to three year. The harsh training given by parents/ teachers during this stage results in characteristics like punctuality, orderliness, obstinacy and cleanliness. • STAGE 3: THE PHALLIC STAGE • This stage starts at the age of three years and ends with the age of four. Freud believes that children during this stage identify themselves with the parents of same sex. The conflict starts which result in loving and hating parents. If the conflict is not resolved then it can lead to severe guilt and anxiety feelings.
SHAPING OF PERSONALITY- FREUDIAN STAGE • STAGE 4: THE LATENCY PERIOD. • This stage occurs between 4 and 6 years. Children develop the interest in developing social relations with classmates and friends. Similarly, they develop the basic skills necessary for their work by understanding the basics of environments with the entry in schools. • THE GENITAL STAGE: • This stage occurs during adolescence to adulthood and sexual interest is re- emerges during the stage. Interest in and awareness towards the opposite sex increase during this stage.
ERIKSON’S STAGES OF PERSONAILTY DEVELOPMENT • ERIKSON believed in paying more attention on the social aspects of personality development. According to Erikson, individuals face psychological crisis in each stage of personality development. each crisis should be aptly resolved in order to have a normal and fulfilling personality. Crisis is the turning point in an individual’s development. • STAGE 1: INFANCY STAGE • This stage runs up to the age of one year. Success in this stage brings pursuit of affection, gratification of needs, recognition etc. failure in this stage results in abuse, deprivation of love, too early or hard weaning. • STAGE 2: EARLY CHILDHOOD • This stage runs from the age of one year to three year. The success in this stage makes the child to view self as a person in his/ her own right apart from parents. The failure in this stage results in feeling of inadequacy, doubting the self etc. • STAGE 3: PLAY AGE • This stage runs from four year to five year. The success in this age makes the individual to be initiative, imitative and imaginative.
STAGE 4: SCHOOL AGE • This stage is from the age of six to eleven years. The successful individual during this stage is industrious., develops scholastic and social competencies, undertakes real tasks etc. failure in this stage results in inferiority complex , poor work culture, avoids competition etc. • STAGE 5: PUBERTY & ADOLESCENCE • This stage occurs during the age of 12 to 20 years. The successful individual during this stage identifies himself with egos with failures the individuals experiences role confusion etc. • STAGE 6: YOUNG ADULTHOOD • This stage is from 20 to 24 years of age. The successful individual develops the capacity to commit himself to others. Failure to meet requirements of this stage keeps the individuals in isolation. The individual avoids intimacy. • STAGE 7: MIDDLE ADULTHOOD • This stage runs between the age of 25 to 65 years. The successful individual in this stage is productive and creative for self and others and failing individual tends to self – love, personal impoverishment and have a feeling of hopelessness and meaninglessness. • STAGE 8: LATE ADULTHOOD • This is the stage of old age. The successful individual during this age develops integrity. He appreciates continuity of pasts, present and future. The failing candidates finds no meaning in life and has no faith in oneself or others.
IMMATURITY TO MATURITY APPROACH • Chris Argyris a well known organizational behavior theorist has identified specific dimensions of human personality from immaturity to maturity stage. • He stated that human personality progresses along a continuum from immaturity as an infant to maturity as adult.
DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY • HEREDITARY: • Certain physical and psychological characteristics like facial attractiveness, temperament, gender etc are partly inherited from one’s parents. • ENVIRONMENT: • Environmental factors are those factors which encircle us and which influence our behavior. • SITUATION: • People react and change or mould their personality according to the situation so that one can adjust or move accordingly. A personality of a person would differ while in a temple, classroom, working place, boss’s chamber etc. For e.g. Japanese started working hard, innovatively and competitively consequent upon the affect of World War II • SOCIAL • FAMILY
BIG 5 MODEL OF PERSONAILTY TRAITS • Personality traits of an executive/ supervisor influences the behavior of the employees in an organization. • For e.g. Mr. Jaykrishnan of Delta Airlines attracts and impresses his subordinates due to his impressive height. • Mr. Vasant of L & T is highly sociable. His subordinates are impressed by the way he conducts the meetings and directs his juniors. • The major personality traits which influence the job behavior and job performance are labeled as the ‘Big Five Personality Traits’. These traits have emerged from the research studies. They are: • EXTROVERSION: Sociable, Talkative and Assertive. • AGREEABLENESS: Good natured, Cooperative and Trusting • CONSCIENTIOUSNESS: Responsible, Dependable, Persistent, and Achievement- oriented. • OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE: Imaginative, Artistically sensitive. • EMOTIONAL STABILTY: Relaxed, secure and unworried
THE MYERS- BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR • This is one of the most widely used personality tests which asks respondents how they usually feel or act in particular situations. • Individuals, based on their answers are classified as : • Extroverts OR Introverts ( E OR I) • Sensitive OR Intuitive ( S OR N) • Thinking OR Feeling ( T OR F) • Perceiving OR Judging ( P OR J) • People with INTJ are considered to be introvert, intuitive, thinking and judging have originals minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. Their characters are skeptical, critical, independent, determined and often stubborn. • ESTJ are: organizers, realistic, logical, analytical, decisive and have natural head for business/ mechanics. • ENTP are: conceptualizes, innovative, individualistic, and versatile entrepreneurs, resourceful in solving challenging problems. • A recent book reported that the persons who created successful companies are intuitive thinkers (NTs)
OTHER PERSONALITY TRAITS ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTED AUTHORITARIANISM • C SELF ESTEEM LOCUS OF CONTROL PERSONALITY TRAITS RISK TAKING MACHIAVELLIANISM SELF MONITORING INTROVERSION- EXTROVERSION TYPE A & TYPE B
LOCUS OF CONTROL: • People generally believe that they have control over their own lives. Locus of control is the extent to which people believe that they can control the events affecting them. Locus of control can be internal or external. • MACHIAVELLIANISM: • Term derived from writings of Nicolo Machiavelli refers to an individuals propensity to manipulate people. These people are prone to participate in organisational politics. They also adept at interpersonal game- playing, power tactics and identifying influence systems in organisation. • TYPE A & TYPE B PERSONAILTY : TYPE A: • Type A personality is “ aggressively involved in a chronic struggle to achieve more and more in lesser and lesser time, and, if required to do so, against the opposing efforts of other things or other person. This type of personality is treated positive personality in North America and an undesirable personality in Indian culture. • The profile of Type A includes: • is always moving, walking rapidly, talking and eating rapidly. • is impatient • does two things at the same time.
TYPE B PERSONAILTY: • Type B personality are exactly opposite to type A personality. These personalities are “ rarely harried by the desire to obtain a widely increasing number of things or participate in an endless growing series of events in ever- decreasing amount of time”. • The profile of type B personality are: • is not concerned about the time, patient, mild mannered and never in hurry. • does not brag. • plays for fun and not to win • relaxes without guilt • has no pressing deadlines. • Type A employees are highly competitive and poorly creative. They suit to routine activities. Their behavior can be easily predictable. These people concentrate on quantity and results rather than the quality. Type B personalities can reach higher positions .