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GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION. A4: The Principles of Training. Objectives. By the end of this module you should be able to 1) Define and explain the following terms: -Overload -Progression -Specificity 2) Describe what is meant: -by meeting individual needs -thresholds of training

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    1. GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION A4: The Principles of Training

    2. Objectives By the end of this module you should be able to 1) Define and explain the following terms: -Overload -Progression -Specificity 2) Describe what is meant: -by meeting individual needs -thresholds of training 3) Explain the F.I.T.T. principle (frequency, intensity, time and type;) moderation and reversibility.

    3. Objectives 4) Understand and explain how the use of these principles and show how they may be applied in planning a Personal Exercise Programme to improve cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance and flexibility.

    4. Principles of Training - Introduction • Why Train? • Training is working the body with the aim of improving its efficiency, performance, skill, ability or physical fitness. Unlike machines the body does not wear out with use, in fact it adapts to be able to cope with more work. Correct practice is however essential if specific aims are to be met. Quality training is effective and beneficial. • The principles of training can be applied to training programmes to ensure training is effective and beneficial. They can easily be remembered using the simple acronym: • S.P.O.R.T

    5. Principles of Training - Introduction • S S = Specificity • P P = Progression • O O = Overload • R R = Reversibility • T T = Tedium

    6. Specificity • Training must be specific to: • - the sport or activity • - the type of fitness required • - the particular muscle groups • For example: • - marathon runners do mostly endurance training • - swimmers train ‘swim specific’ muscles • - tennis players train tennis skills not badminton skills • - sprinters do mostly speed training • - weight lifters do mostly strength and power training

    7. Progression • As the body adapts to training it progresses to a new level of fitness. Progress to the next level is achieved by gradual increase in intensity to create an overload. • You must be careful to build up exercise level gradually, to avoid injury. If you exercise at a steady level your fitness will remain at that level. Improving fitness can be thought of as climbing a staircase. You must climb one step at a time. • For example training for a marathon must progress from 1mile at start of training to 26miles at the end of training.

    8. Overload Training must be raised to a higher level than is normal to create the extra demands to which the body will adapt. Doing this will make the body work harder than usual. This can be done in 4 ways according to the F.I.T.T. principle: Increase the FREQUENCY Increase the INTENSITY Increase the TYPE Increase the TIME

    9. The F.I.T.T. Principle

    10. Using The F.I.T.T. Principle In Training • Sarah’s training programme consists of her going for a run around her small village where she lives two times a week. She always runs the same course and completes it in about the same time. • Sarah finds her programme very easy and is worried that she is not progressing. Do you think she is progressing. Give full reasons why or why not? • - No because she is not overloading her training • - frequency of training is the same • - intensity of training is the same • - type of training is the same • - time of training is the same

    11. You Are The Personal Trainer • Use your knowledge of the F.I.T.T. principle to advise Sarah how she can use each strand of the principle to ensure she progresses to a new level.

    12. You Are The Personal Trainer • Complete the following: • Sarah could use the principle of FREQUENCY to overload and progress to a new level of fitness by going for a run 3-4 times a week. • Sarah could use the principle of INTENSITY to overload and progress to a new level of fitness by completing the same run in a quicker time. • Sarah could use the principle of TYPE to overload and progress to a new level of fitness by changing the course she runs or the way she runs it. • Sarah could use the principle of TIME to overload and progress to a new level of fitness by increasing the length of time she goes running for.

    13. Reversibility • Training effects are reversible. If exercise is reduced in intensity or stopped then the benefit can be quickly lost. Deterioration sets in after about one week. Muscles that are not used waste away or atrophy. • This means you must keep to the training programme, if you really want to get fitter. If you take a break because of illness or holiday, start again at a lower level.

    14. Tedium • Tedium (or boredom) should be avoided in all programmes. By using a variety (or variance) in training methods we will keep our enthusiasm and not become demotivated or stale. • For example football training should include passing, shooting, tackling, dribbling, marking etc and not just a game.

    15. Moderation • Moderation is ensuring that training is not overdone. Overloading too quickly can lead to injury, particularly if insufficient recovery time or inadequate warm up and cool down are not given. • For example overuse injury’s are becoming more common in young performers.

    16. Individual Needs • Compare the following two athletes who both go to the same school • Since the 2 are both gymnasts then it makes sense for them to follow the same training programme. They could train together comment? • -different skill levels • -different interests and aims • -different experience • -Glenn may progress & overload • -Paul may reverse & tedium

    17. Planning A Personal Programme • Have an ideas shower with a friend and draw a mind map of the things you may need to know before you start to plan an exercise programme for someone. • Initial tests • Objectives • Sport / Activity • Medical History • Principles of Training • Reasons for participation • Individual training sessions, weekly training sessions, monthly training sessions • Fitness components • Types of training • Dietary requirements