GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION May 2009
Why do we take part in physical activity? • Social – Meet people, make friends. - Co – operation, competition, physical challenge, aesthetic appreciation. • Mental – Relieve stress and tension and stress related illness. • Physical – Improve body shape, good health,
Health • “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well – being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.
Fitness • “the ability to meet the demands of the environment”. • Your environment = your life and the things you do in it.
Exercise • “ a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness”.
Performance • “how well a task is completed”.
Health Related Fitness • Cardio vascular fitness • Muscular strength • Muscular endurance • Flexibility • Body composition • (A lack of any of these components will have a negative effect on your health).
Health Related Fitness • C.V. fitness is “the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time”. • Muscular Strength is“The ability to apply force and overcome resistance”. • Muscular Endurance is “The ability to use muscles,many times without getting tired”.
Flexibility is - “The range of movement at a joint.” • Body composition is - “The percentage of body weight which is fat muscle and bone.”
Skill Related Fitness • These are the components of fitness which determine which sports you will be good at. They do not affect health. • Agility – to change direction at speed. • Balance – retain centre of mass over base of support. • Co – ordination – to use two or more body parts together
A B C P R S • Power – strength performance quickly • Reaction Time - “The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of movement.” • Speed - “How fast your body can move over a short distance”.
S.P.O.R.T. • Specificity – the activity/ training done must match the outcomes that you want to achieve. • Progression – start slowly and build up gradually. • Overload – making your body systems work harder than normal. • Reversibility – when you stop training you lose the fitness built up. • Tedium
FITT PRINCIPLES • Frequency – How often? • Intensity – How hard? • Time – How long? • Type – What you do. • 3miles 15mins 3 times • 4miles 20mins 3 times • 4miles 20mins 4 times
Methods of Training • Circuit • Weight • Interval • Continuous • Fartlek • Cross
Muscular contractions • Isotonic • Isometric
Exercise Session • Warm up: Pulse raisers, stretches, mobilising joints. • Main activity: skills, drills, tactics. • Cool down: to remove lactic acid and repay oxygen debt.
Immediate effects of exercise • Increased • heart rate, • breathing rate, • body temperature, • blood flow to working muscles.
Long term effects of exercise • Bones – become denser. • Joints – remain mobile – increased production of synovial fluid lubricates the joints. • Muscles – get stronger and can contract with more force.
Long term effects of exercise • Cardiovascular system – increased stroke volume, increased cardiac output, heart muscle gets thicker/ stronger. - Decreased resting heart rate. • Respiratory system - Vital capacity increases. • More alveoli become surrounded by capillaries so gas exchange is more efficient. • As a result of this we can work for longer before tiring (aerobically).
Recovery Rate • This is the length of time it takes our heart rate to return to normal after we finish exercising.
Target Zones • Maximum heart rate = 220 – age • Training/ target zones are calculated using this equation. • Less than 60% MHR = Recovery zone • 60 – 80% MHR = Aerobic training zone • 80 - 90% MHR = Anaerobic training zone. • 90 – 95% MHR = Speed training zone.
Nutrients • Carbohydrates – Used for energy. • Fats – Used for energy too but much slower release (aerobic activities). • Protein – Build cells and repair tissues. • Vitamins and minerals – each has their own use. • Fibre – cannot be digested so is good for digestive system. • Water – Athletes must replace fluids lost through sweat to prevent dehydration.
Extreme body types (Somatotypes) • Endomorph – lots of fat • Mesomorph – lots of muscle • Ectomorph - skinny
Overweight, overfat and obese • Overfat = More body fat than you should have. • Obese = People who are very overfat. • Overweight = Having weight that is in excess of normal. This is not harmful unless the extra weight is made up of excess fat.
Socially acceptable drugs • Nicotine – cigarettes. Nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide. Affects sports performance by getting less oxygen to working muscles so tire easily. • Alcohol – affects co – ordination, balance , reaction time.
Stimulants • Stimulate circulatory and nervous systems. • Can work hard for long periods of time without feeling pain & fatigue. • Dangers: Ignoring pain & fatigue can lead to injury. • Examples include: amphetamines, speed, cocaine.
Narcotic Analgesics • Pain killers. • Dangers: Ignoring pain & fatigue can lead to injury. • Very addictive. • Examples: morphine, heroin, codeine
Anabolic Steroids • Hormones that help build & repair muscle. • Dangers: If you take artificial hormones your body stops making its own. Causes aggression, infertility, cancer, growth of facial hair & deepening voice in females. • Examples: testosterone.
Diuretics • Increase the amount of water excreted in urine. • Misused by boxers & jockeys who need to lose weight to make the correct weight.
Beta Blockers • Block the effect of adrenaline. • Calm athletes nerves. (Archery, shooting) • Dangers: reduce blood pressure, can cause depression.
Blood Doping • Increasing the number of red blood cells. • Red blood cells carry O2. Increasing O2 helps endurance athletes perform better for longer. • Blood is withdrawn and red blood cells extracted & frozen. Immediately before the event they are injected into the athlete. • Dangers: Infection & blocked capillaries.
Foot Infections • Athlete’s foot – fungus between toes. Spread by contact or on wet floors. • Athletes foot powder cures it. • Verruca – is a wart on the sole of the foot. Spread by contact or on wet floors. • Treated by creams or by a chiropodist.
Prevention of Injury • Rules • Correct clothing/ footwear • Protective clothing/ equipment e.g. shin pads, gum shields, post protectors. • Warm up and cool down • Balanced competition – Same age, sex, skill level/ grade, weight.
Sports Injuries • Rest • Ice – constricts blood vessels • Compression – i.e. Tight bandage • Elevation – lift high then it is harder for blood to flow there. • UseRICE for soft tissue injuries i.e. strains and sprains.
Sports Injuries • Fractures – breaks or cracks in bone. • Dislocation – a bone out of place at a joint. • Tennis and golfers elbow – joint injury – over use. • Knee cartilage – torn – joint injury. • Dehydration – loss of too much body fluid. • Hypothermia – core body temperature too low.
D.R.A.B.C. • Danger – check for danger to self & casualty • Response – shout and shake • Airway – clear any obstruction • Breathing – ear close to mouth, watch for rise and fall of chest. • Circulation – have they got a pulse?
Cardiac Massage • If casualty is not breathing and has no pulse, first phone the ambulance, then give two breaths and fifteen chest compressions until help arrives. • These chest compressions do the same job as the heart in pumping blood to vital organs.(You are not really trying to start the heart).
Recovery Position • If the casualty is breathing and has a pulse (but are unconscious), place on their side in the recovery position and keep checking they are breathing & have pulse until help arrives. • This keeps airway clear.
Double circulatory system • The heart acts as a pump in a double circulatory system. • Imagine that the two sides of the heart are separated. • The right side always deals with de – oxygenated blood & sends it to the lungs. • The left side always deals with oxygen rich blood and sends it round the body.
Vena cava Right atrium Tricuspid valve Right ventricle Semi lunar valves Pulmonary artery Lungs Pulmonary vein Left atrium Bicuspid (mitral) valve Left ventricle Semi lunar valves Aorta Body In Short . . .
Septum • The septum is the wall of muscle that separates the two sides of the heart to prevent the de oxygenated and oxygenated blood from mixing.
Important Definitions • Heart rate – the number of times the heart beats each minute. • (Pulse) • This will decrease the fitter you are. • Stroke volume – the amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each beat. • This will increase the fitter you are as the muscle walls of the heart will get stronger and pump out more blood with every beat.
Important Definitions • Cardiac output – the amount of blood ejected by the heart in one minute. • This will increase the fitter you are because the stroke volume increases. • Cardiac output = heart rate X stroke volume
Arteries & Veins • Arteries Veins • No valves Have valves • Go away Go towards heart • Narrow lumen Large lumen • High Pressure Low Pressure • Thick muscle Thin muscle • Mainly oxygenated Mainly deoxygenated
Capillaries • Thin (one cell thick) • Exchange gases (see respiratory system).
Blood • Red blood cells – transport oxygen from lungs to tissues (Haemoglobin). • Plasma – Transport carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs ( and glucose and mineral salts to tissues). • Platelets – help in blood clotting (forming scabs) • White blood cells – Immune system, defence against disease.