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GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION May 25 th 2005 Why do we take part in physical activity? Social – Meet people, make friends. - Co – operation, competition, physical challenge, aesthetic appreciation. Mental – Relieve stress and tension and stress related illness.

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why do we take part in physical activity
Why do we take part in physical activity?
  • Social – Meet people, make friends.

- Co – operation, competition, physical challenge, aesthetic appreciation.

  • Mental – Relieve stress and tension and stress related illness.
  • Physical – Improve body shape, good health,
  • “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well – being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.
  • “the ability to meet the demands of the environment”.
  • Your environment = your life and the things you do in it.
  • “ a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness”.
  • “how well a task is completed”.
health related fitness
Health Related Fitness
  • Cardio vascular fitness
  • Muscular strength
  • Muscular endurance
  • Flexibility
  • Body composition
  • (A lack of any of these components will have a negative effect on your health).
health related fitness8
Health Related Fitness
  • C.V. fitness is “the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time”.
  • Muscular Strength is“The ability to apply force and overcome resistance”.
  • Muscular Endurance is “The ability to use muscles,many times without getting tired”.
Flexibility is - “The range of movement at a joint.”
  • Body composition is - “The percentage of body weight which is fat muscle and bone.”
skill related fitness
Skill Related Fitness
  • These are the components of fitness which determine which sports you will be good at. They do not affect health.
  • Agility – to change direction at speed.
  • Balance – retain centre of mass over base of support.
  • Co – ordination – to use two or more body parts together
a b c p r s
  • Power – strength performance quickly
  • Reaction Time - “The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of movement.”
  • Speed - “How fast your body can move over a short distance”.
s p o r t
  • Specificity – the activity/ training done must match the outcomes that you want to achieve.
  • Progression – start slowly and build up gradually.
  • Overload – making your body systems work harder than normal.
  • Reversibility – when you stop training you lose the fitness built up.
  • Tedium
fitt principles
  • Frequency – How often?
  • Intensity – How hard?
  • Time – How long?
  • Type – What you do.
  • 3miles 15mins 3 times
  • 4miles 20mins 3 times
  • 4miles 20mins 4 times
methods of training16
Methods of Training
  • Circuit
  • Weight
  • Interval
  • Continuous
  • Fartlek
  • Cross
muscular contractions
Muscular contractions
  • Isotonic
  • Isometric
exercise session
Exercise Session
  • Warm up: Pulse raisers, stretches, mobilising joints.
  • Main activity: skills, drills, tactics.
  • Cool down: to remove lactic acid and repay oxygen debt.
immediate effects of exercise
Immediate effects of exercise
  • Increased
  • heart rate,
  • breathing rate,
  • body temperature,
  • blood flow to working muscles.
long term effects of exercise
Long term effects of exercise
  • Bones – become denser.
  • Joints – remain mobile – increased production of synovial fluid lubricates the joints.
  • Muscles – get stronger and can contract with more force.
long term effects of exercise21
Long term effects of exercise
  • Cardiovascular system – increased stroke volume, increased cardiac output, heart muscle gets thicker/ stronger.

- Decreased resting heart rate.

  • Respiratory system - Vital capacity increases.
  • More alveoli become surrounded by capillaries so gas exchange is more efficient.
  • As a result of this we can work for longer before tiring (aerobically).
recovery rate
Recovery Rate
  • This is the length of time it takes our heart rate to return to normal after we finish exercising.
target zones
Target Zones
  • Maximum heart rate = 220 – age
  • Training/ target zones are calculated using this equation.
  • Less than 60% MHR = Recovery zone
  • 60 – 80% MHR = Aerobic training zone
  • 80 - 90% MHR = Anaerobic training zone.
  • 90 – 95% MHR = Speed training zone.
  • Carbohydrates – Used for energy.
  • Fats – Used for energy too but much slower release (aerobic activities).
  • Protein – Build cells and repair tissues.
  • Vitamins and minerals – each has their own use.
  • Fibre – cannot be digested so is good for digestive system.
  • Water – Athletes must replace fluids lost through sweat to prevent dehydration.
extreme body types somatotypes
Extreme body types (Somatotypes)
  • Endomorph – lots of fat
  • Mesomorph – lots of muscle
  • Ectomorph - skinny
overweight overfat and obese
Overweight, overfat and obese
  • Overfat = More body fat than you should have.
  • Obese = People who are very overfat.
  • Overweight = Having weight that is in excess of normal. This is not harmful unless the extra weight is made up of excess fat.
socially acceptable drugs
Socially acceptable drugs
  • Nicotine – cigarettes. Nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide. Affects sports performance by getting less oxygen to working muscles so tire easily.
  • Alcohol – affects co – ordination, balance , reaction time.
  • Stimulate circulatory and nervous systems.
  • Can work hard for long periods of time without feeling pain & fatigue.
  • Dangers: Ignoring pain & fatigue can lead to injury.
  • Examples include: amphetamines, speed, cocaine.
narcotic analgesics
Narcotic Analgesics
  • Pain killers.
  • Dangers: Ignoring pain & fatigue can lead to injury.
  • Very addictive.
  • Examples: morphine, heroin, codeine
anabolic steroids
Anabolic Steroids
  • Hormones that help build & repair muscle.
  • Dangers: If you take artificial hormones your body stops making its own. Causes aggression, infertility, cancer, growth of facial hair & deepening voice in females.
  • Examples: testosterone.
  • Increase the amount of water excreted in urine.
  • Misused by boxers & jockeys who need to lose weight to make the correct weight.
beta blockers
Beta Blockers
  • Block the effect of adrenaline.
  • Calm athletes nerves. (Archery, shooting)
  • Dangers: reduce blood pressure, can cause depression.
blood doping
Blood Doping
  • Increasing the number of red blood cells.
  • Red blood cells carry O2. Increasing O2 helps endurance athletes perform better for longer.
  • Blood is withdrawn and red blood cells extracted & frozen. Immediately before the event they are injected into the athlete.
  • Dangers: Infection & blocked capillaries.
foot infections
Foot Infections
  • Athlete’s foot – fungus between toes. Spread by contact or on wet floors.
  • Athletes foot powder cures it.
  • Verruca – is a wart on the sole of the foot. Spread by contact or on wet floors.
  • Treated by creams or by a chiropodist.
prevention of injury
Prevention of Injury
  • Rules
  • Correct clothing/ footwear
  • Protective clothing/ equipment e.g. shin pads, gum shields, post protectors.
  • Warm up and cool down
  • Balanced competition – Same age, sex, skill level/ grade, weight.
sports injuries
Sports Injuries
  • Rest
  • Ice – constricts blood vessels
  • Compression – i.e. Tight bandage
  • Elevation – lift high then it is harder for blood to flow there.
  • UseRICE for soft tissue injuries i.e. strains and sprains.
sports injuries38
Sports Injuries
  • Fractures – breaks or cracks in bone.
  • Dislocation – a bone out of place at a joint.
  • Tennis and golfers elbow – joint injury – over use.
  • Knee cartilage – torn – joint injury.
  • Dehydration – loss of too much body fluid.
  • Hypothermia – core body temperature too low.
d r a b c
  • Danger – check for danger to self & casualty
  • Response – shout and shake
  • Airway – clear any obstruction
  • Breathing – ear close to mouth, watch for rise and fall of chest.
  • Circulation – have they got a pulse?
cardiac massage
Cardiac Massage
  • If casualty is not breathing and has no pulse, first phone the ambulance, then give two breaths and fifteen chest compressions until help arrives.
  • These chest compressions do the same job as the heart in pumping blood to vital organs.(You are not really trying to start the heart).
recovery position
Recovery Position
  • If the casualty is breathing and has a pulse (but are unconscious), place on their side in the recovery position and keep checking they are breathing & have pulse until help arrives.
  • This keeps airway clear.
double circulatory system
Double circulatory system
  • The heart acts as a pump in a double circulatory system.
  • Imagine that the two sides of the heart are separated.
  • The right side always deals with de – oxygenated blood & sends it to the lungs.
  • The left side always deals with oxygen rich blood and sends it round the body.
in short
Vena cava

Right atrium

Tricuspid valve

Right ventricle

Semi lunar valves

Pulmonary artery


Pulmonary vein

Left atrium

Bicuspid (mitral) valve

Left ventricle

Semi lunar valves



In Short . . .
  • The septum is the wall of muscle that separates the two sides of the heart to prevent the de oxygenated and oxygenated blood from mixing.
important definitions
Important Definitions
  • Heart rate – the number of times the heart beats each minute.
  • (Pulse)
  • This will decrease the fitter you are.
  • Stroke volume – the amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each beat.
  • This will increase the fitter you are as the muscle walls of the heart will get stronger and pump out more blood with every beat.
important definitions47
Important Definitions
  • Cardiac output – the amount of blood ejected by the heart in one minute.
  • This will increase the fitter you are because the stroke volume increases.
  • Cardiac output = heart rate X stroke volume
arteries veins
Arteries & Veins
  • Arteries Veins
  • No valves Have valves
  • Go away Go towards heart
  • Narrow lumen Large lumen
  • High Pressure Low Pressure
  • Thick muscle Thin muscle
  • Mainly oxygenated Mainly deoxygenated
  • Thin (one cell thick)
  • Exchange gases (see respiratory system).
  • Red blood cells – transport oxygen from lungs to tissues (Haemoglobin).
  • Plasma – Transport carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs ( and glucose and mineral salts to tissues).
  • Platelets – help in blood clotting (forming scabs)
  • White blood cells – Immune system, defence against disease.
parts of the respiratory system
Parts of the Respiratory System
  • Air is breathed into the nose, where it is filtered by cilia (tiny hairs) and warmed and moistened by mucus.
  • The epiglottis (a small flap of cartilage) stops food going into the windpipe instead of the gullet.
  • The larynx is the voice box.
The windpipe or trachea is a flexible tube held open by rings of cartilage.
  • The lungs are soft and spongy and are in a space called the thoracic cavity.
  • The pleural membrane is a slippery skin that protects the lungs as they rub against the ribs.
The ribs protect the lungs. Intercostal muscles in between the ribs help us breathe in and out.
  • In the lungs, the trachea branches into two bronchi. Each is a bronchus.
  • The bronchi branch into smaller bronchioles.
  • The bronchioles end in bunches of tiny air sacs called alveoli. Their walls are thin so gases can pass through them.
gaseous exchange
  • Gaseous exchange takes place in the alveoli of the lungs.
  • Capillaries (are one cell thick) surround the alveoli. The oxygen from the lungs pass into the capillaries and this then goes back to the heart to be pumped round the body.
  • The carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the lungs and is then breathed out.
  • Is also called respiration.
  • Breathing in is called inspiration.
  • Breathing out is called expiration.
  • Tidal volume: The amount of air you breathe out in one breath.
  • Respiratory rate: how many breaths you take in one minute.
  • Vital capacity: the maximum amount of air you can breathe out, after breathing in as deeply as you can.
minute volume
Minute Volume
  • Tidal volume X respiratory rate =

minute volume

(the amount you breathe in one minute).

  • Inside the womb, bones start life as cartilage.
  • Over the years this turns into bone in a process called ossification.
composition of bones
Composition of Bones
  • Periosteum – grows around the cartilage. Controls the shape & thickness of the bone.
  • Bone cells appear at the end of bones – the growth plates or epiphyseal plates.
  • The epiphysis is at the end of the bone.
  • The diaphysis is the shaft (length) of the bone.
Cartilage – prevents bones rubbing together. Becomes thicker with exercise.
  • Compact bone - hard and strong, it protects the bone from breaking. Becomes thicker with exercise.
  • Marrow cavity – contains bone marrow. With exercise the production of red and white blood cells is speeded up.
  • Spongy bone – helps with shock absorption. This increases through exercise.
functions of the skeleton
Functions of the Skeleton
  • Shape / support– The bones form a framework to support the body. Different length and thickness of bones determine our shape.
  • Protection – Bones surround our vital organs. E.g. the skull protects the brain, the vertebral column protect the spinal cord.
  • Movement –produced by muscles pulling on bones.
  • Blood production – Bones make blood cells in the marrow cavity and spongy bone.
the four types of bone
  • LONG BONES – arms & legs, hands, feet, fingers & toes. Used for movement.
  • SHORT BONES – Carpals & tarsals. Fine movement & strength.
  • FLAT BONES – Scapula, cranium, pelvis. Protection of vital organs.
  • IRREGULAR BONES – Vertebrae. Protection & support.
the vertebral column
The vertebral column
  • The 5 sections of the vertebral column are:
functions of vertebral column
Functions of vertebral Column
  • CERVICAL – neck – atlas & axis - nodding
  • THORACIC – chest – ribs attached
  • LUMBAR – largest bones, support weight, most movement & injuries occur here.
  • SACRUM – Fused. Transmit force from legs to upper body. Throwing events.
  • COCCYX - fused. No real function.
why is the spine regarded as weak for some activities
Why is the spine regarded as weak for some activities?
  • The spine is fairly thin for the weight that it is expected to carry.
  • Any activity where we have to lift or carry any extra weight can be dangerous. E.g. Weightlifting.
  • Any activity which could result in our spine moving in a way for which it was not designed is dangerous. E.g. Trampolining.
Any contact sport is dangerous due to the chance of another person causing you an injury, even by accident. E.g. a rugby scrum collapsing, or someone mis-timing a tackle.
  • The structure of the spine.
  • Between each vertebra there is a disc of cartilage. Vertebrae are linked by ligaments. Too much movement causes these ligaments to be strained or the vertebral discs to slip which is very painful.
  • A joint is defined as “a place where two, or more, bones meet”.
freely moveable synovial joints
Freely Moveable (synovial) Joints
  • These are the majority

of joints which allow

the greatest range of


  • Example the

knee joint.

Joint capsule: holds the bone together and protects the joint.
  • Synovial membrane: This lines the capsule and contains liquid called the synovial fluid.
  • Joint cavity: This is a small gap between the bones that is filled by synovial fluid. This lubricates the joint so bones move easier.
  • Cartilage: At the end of bones to prevent them rubbing together.
  • Ligaments: Hold bones together.
freely movable joints
Freely Movable Joints
  • Ball and socket: E.g. hip – cross over step in javelin. Shoulder – bowling in cricket.
  • Hinge: E.g. Elbow – press ups. Knee – kicking a ball.
  • Pivot – Neck, Radius & ulna – changing from forehand to backhand in tennis.
  • Saddle – thumb
  • Gliding – carpals & tarsals – swinging golf club.
fixed or immovable joints
Fixed or immovable joints
  • These bones can’t move at all. E.g. Cranium. The plates in the cranium are fused together for greater strength.
slightly movable joints
Slightly movable joints
  • The bones at a slightly moveable joint can move very slightly. They are held together by ligaments and are cushioned by cartilage.
  • A good example of this joint is the vertebrae and the ribs and sternum.
voluntary skeletal
Voluntary/ Skeletal
  • These are attached to bones.
  • They work when we want them to, when we decide.
  • Voluntary muscles are also called skeletal muscle because they are attached to bones.
  • They are also called striped or striated because of their appearance under a microscope.
involuntary muscles
Involuntary Muscles
  • We do not have to think about using these muscles.They work on their own.
  • Examples include: stomach, gut, bladderand blood vessels.
  • Also known as smooth muscles because they have no stripes under a microscope.
cardiac muscle
Cardiac Muscle
  • Is a special type of involuntary muscle that forms the walls of the heart.
  • It works non – stop without ever tiring.
antagonistic pairs
Antagonistic Pairs
  • Muscles work in antagonistic pairs.
  • Working muscle = prime mover or agonist
  • The relaxing muscle is called the antagonist.

E.g. to flex the arm: Biceps = agonist, triceps = antagonist

To extend the arm Triceps = agonist, biceps = antagonist.

  • The hamstrings and quadriceps are also an example of antagonistic muscle action.
types of movement
Types of Movement
  • Flexion – bending a limb at a joint. (Decreasing the angle).
  • Extension – Straightening a limb at a joint. (Increasing the angle).
  • Adduction – Movement towards the mid line of the body.
  • Abduction – Movement away from the mid line of the body.


As soon as you are allowed to open your exam paper write down the following -

  • Mental, Social, Physical benefits
  • HRF – Body comp, CV, Endurance, Flex, Strength.
  • SRF – Agility, Balance, Co – ord, Power Reaction time, Speed. (ABCPRS)
  • Specificity, Progression, Overload, Reversibility, Tedium. (SPORT)
  • Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type. (FITT)
  • Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation. (RICE)
  • Danger, Response, Airway, Breathing, Circulation. (DRABC)