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European International Relations (1871 – 1914) PowerPoint Presentation
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European International Relations (1871 – 1914)

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European International Relations (1871 – 1914)

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European International Relations (1871 – 1914)

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  1. European International Relations (1871 – 1914)

  2. Aims of the Major Powers • Germany • Assure new boundaries gained through unification • Maintain positive relations with Russia • France • Become free from German occupation • Recover Alsace – Lorraine • Revenge against Germany • Italy • Acquire lands in North Africa

  3. Aims of the Major Powers • England • Create alliances to protect colonies • Maintain economic and industrial advantages • Austria-Hungary • Extend territory into the Balkans • Turkey at this point was the stick man of Europe • Russia • Catch up to western industry • Limit power of Austria in the Balkans

  4. Change in Military Policy After 1871 • Some countries adopt compulsory military service (except England) • There was a belief across the continent that war was imminent • Countries rush to create new alliances • Dual Alliance Germany – Austria (1879) • Germany and Austria would come to each other’s aid if attacked by Russia. Would remain neutral if attacked by another country • France and Russia were a common concern

  5. Alliances 1890 - 1914 • Franco – Russian Alliance (1890) • Post Bismarck • Both needed allies • Defensive alliance against Germany • Colonial diplomacy brought France and England together • Triple Entente • France, England, Russia

  6. Alliances 1890 - 1914 • Triple Alliance • Germany, Austria – Hungary, Italy • Italy had conflicts with France over lands in N. Africa

  7. Leading to War • The Nature of Alliances • Allies agreed to specific actions in case of war • Alliances spread across Europe • Conflicts anywhere could expand • Armaments • Nations had to keep peace with their enemies

  8. Leading to War • Imperialism • Conflicting interests overseas • Propaganda • Racism, nationalism and dislike of other nations • Balkan Crisis • Austria – Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 • Serbians did not want to join Austria