Music Therapy. Changing Older Adult Lives Through Music. Music Therapy Changing Older Adult Lives Through M usic Ruth Sherk Simon Fraser University GERO 400 Assignment 2 Student #: 100093055 February 25, 2013. Why consider Music Therapy?. My knowledge of Music Therapy is limited
Music TherapyChanging Older Adult Lives Through MusicRuth SherkSimon Fraser UniversityGERO 400Assignment 2Student #: 100093055February 25, 2013
Why consider Music Therapy? My knowledge of Music Therapy is limited I have witnessed the positive outcomes of music therapy among our older adult residents where I work, and wonder how this occurs Social Work seeks to utilize best practice interventions when working with older adults
Music TherapyChanging Older Adult Lives Through Music Music is thought to link all of the emotional, spiritual, and physical elements of the universe. Laurence O’Donnell III
Presentation overview: A. Music Participation B. Music in History C. Music as Therapy D. Music Therapy – changing older adult lives through music – look at research, practice and current literature
A. Music Participation GUEST: Sheila Harry, B.Mus., MTA Employed fulltime as a Music Therapist at a Long-Term Care Facility
B. Music in History Music has been used as a healing source for centuries: Music Therapy goes back to biblical times, when David played the harp to rid King Saul of a bad spirit. About 400 B.C., Hippocrates, Greek father of medicine, played music for his mental patients. Aristotle described music as a force that purified the emotions. In 13th Century, Arab hospitals contained music-rooms for the benefit of the patients.
In the United States, Native American medicine men often employed chants and dances as a method of healing patients. Franz Liszt’s piano music in the 1840s was known to cause women to faint upon hearing his concerts. Music Therapy as we know it began in the aftermath of the World Wars I and II. Musicians would travel to hospitals, especially the UK, and play music for soldiers suffering from war-related emotional and physical trauma. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_therapy
Why be familiar with styles of music?In a research article by Tabloski and McKinnon-Howe (2005), the authors examined the use of calming music to decrease agitation in cognitively impaired nursing home residents.The key to music selection is not only the type of music but also the memories it evokes. Finding out what kind of music residents preferred to listen to when they were younger or consulting with family members to assemble a music library collection is a key to success.
YouTube selection: “HENRY” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EgNLLelQYwI A clip highlighting the use of iPod
C. Music as TherapyIn the mid-1950's, music therapists were working independently in Canada; in 1960, Norma Sharpe conducted a survey of music in hospitals across Canada which provided a baseline measure for music awareness.At the May 1976 music therapy conference, the national music therapy association was founded and named the Canadian Music Therapy Association (CMTA).In Canada there are six universities that offer a MTA program. In the United States there are approximately 70 academic institutions that provide MTA education. In addition, there are MTA programs in the UK, Australia, Africa and Europe.As we can see, the MTA program is progressing in importance.
The Aim of Music Therapy: Changing lives through music is the aim of the music therapist’s focus. Music provides a non-threatening presence and transports the listener to ‘another place.’ According the Canadian Association for Music Therapy, music therapy is the skillful use of music and musical elements by an accredited music therapist to promote, maintain, and restore mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual health. Accredited music therapists, MTA, complete a Bachelor or a Graduate Certificate in music therapy and a 1000-hour supervised clinical internship.
Sheila will explain the prerequisites for becoming a Music Therapist
Music Therapy is considered both an art and a science ART What’s great about music is that it carries some of the same characteristics as traditional art. Both music and art are capable of conveying emotion without words. Music can also be used in concert with creating art. SCIENCE A small but growing body of scientific evidence suggests that music and other rhythmic stimuli can alter mental states in predictable ways and even heal damaged brains. Research has shown, music with a strong beat stimulates the brain and ultimately causes brainwaves to resonate in time with the rhythm.
YouTube selection: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rDhV1Tm1LI Evergreen Home - Music Therapy
D. Music Therapy – changing older adult lives through music Music Therapy provides opportunities for: Memory recall which contributes to reminiscence and satisfaction with life Positive changes in mood and emotional states Sense of control over life through successful experiences Awareness of self and environment Anxiety and stress reduction for older adult and caregiver Nonpharmacological management of pain and discomfort Stimulation which provokes interest even when no other approach is effective Music validates the person
Research: Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research The music therapy experience is a complex one. It involves subjective realities and relates to multilevel intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships between client(s), music, and music therapist(s). What is the meaning of the music therapy experience and how can it be best described? How to study the music therapy experience in order to discover its meaning? Attempts to “translate” the musical experience into verbal language have all too often been dismissed because the language seems not to be grounded in anything “real”. Dorit Amir (1993) http://njmt.b.uib.no/2000/01/31/research-in-music-therapy-quantitative-or-qualitative/
Music Therapy Research BlogBringing current research to music therapy clinicianshttp://www.musictherapyresearchblog.com/STUDY: Affect Change in Older Adults with DementiaCohen-Mansfield et al (2011)http://www.musictherapyresearchblog.com/affect-change-in-older-adults-with-dementia/Clinical Importance: As music therapists, we are aware that client-preferred music is an integral component to working with any population. This article did not use client-preferred music and showed a low interest/pleasure in recorded music. If we look at the two stimuli that scored the highest – those related to self-identity and social interaction – live music therapy intervention would include both of these categories. To me, this would support the use of live music therapy intervention over imposed passive music listening.
YouTube selection: Music and the Brain http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AUT9UTVrwp8&list=PL98FFEBA252771D3D
Music on the Brain A study by Stephan Koelsch (2009), showed that listening to joyful music can lead to activity changes in the amygdala and the hippocampus, even if individuals do not have intense “chill” experiences. (using PET imaging)
YouTube - The Drs. http://on.aol.com/video/how-the-brain-processes-music-517477661
Literature Reviews: Current study findings point toward the efficacy of individualized music as simple, low-cost alternative to physical and chemical restraints. Discussion of the Theory of Personhood (Kitwood) was discussed in literature findings to support the idea of well-being. Kitwood (1997) claimed that personhood was sacred and unique and that every person had an ethical status and should be treated with deep respect. The role of music in palliative care is significant. The patient and caregiver both commented on the beneficial presence of live music, the use of familiar songs and the involvement of voice. Researchers found that listening to music can reduce chronic pain and depression. They found that people who listened to music for an hour a day for a week reported improved physical and psychological symptoms compared to the control group.
Handout Review http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ketz-mJ-x-Q YouTube - PBSNewsHour(2012) Featuring Gabrielle Gifford’s recovery attributed to Music Therapy to getting her voice back. A variety of examples of age groups and medical conditions where Music Therapy is used. Eric Waldon states that Music Therapy is a therapeutic relationship – an intentional use of music to address non-musical goals. Listening to music can create new pathways around damaged areas.
Silver Memories: Implementation and evaluation of a unique radio program for older people(Australia). Travers & Bartlett (2011). The use of radio to address social isolation and loneliness among older people by providing entertainment, information and companionship. (one hour a day for three months) Both social isolation and loneliness are associated with a range of negative consequences including reduced quality of life (QOL). Research shows that listening to music improves older people’s QOL, lessen feelings of isolation and loneliness and is a frequent source of positive emotion for this group. (cites study – pg. 170) Results from 113 participants: evaluation indicated that listening to old-time music can improve QOL and mood of older people. There was improvement on QOL and depression scores. Discrepancy: no significant change in feelings of social isolation and loneliness may be the result of the quantitative nature of this study as compared to another qualitative study.
Research in Music Therapy: Quantitative or Qualitative? Dorit Amir (1993)http://njmt.b.uib.no/2000/01/31/research-in-music-therapy-quantitative-or-qualitative/ The article addresses two burning questions: the meaning of the music therapy experience and finding the right research modalities in order to explore the musical experience on a deeper level. Explains that in years past research was designed on positivistic lines (measurable stimuli and observable behavior) – Music Therapists had to prove that music therapy works, and to explain how it works. The new research paradigm was needed explore the experience of music therapy, eg. Qualitative research. Research is: researcher is the key instrument; research is descriptive; concerned with process vs. outcomes; grounded theory based – from the bottom up, the field of the ‘unknown’; find out the ‘meanings’ of the people who participate in the experience.
In summary, from the perspective of neuroscience and biology, there are numerous reasons to assume that music and music therapy has beneficial effects on the psychological and physiological health of individuals. However, so far only few studies have actually tested, and systemically investigated, such effects. It is the challenge for the next decade to change this. - Stephan Koelsch, (2009)
“Music is a moral law. It gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, and charm and gaiety to life and to everything.” - Plato
Young @ Heart http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_p2Uezbw0U0 Bob Cilman and Judith Sharpe organized the Young@Heart (Y@H) in 1982 whose members lived in an elderly housing project in Northampton, MA called the Walter Salvo House. By 1983 the original group was ready to create their first stage production. In 2006 a Walker George released a documentary called “Young @ Heart”, which some of you may have seen. Y@H released the CD, “Mostly Live” in August 2007.
References http://www.musictherapy.ca/en Canadian Association for Music Therapy http://www.mcgraw-hill.co.uk/html/0335198554.html Kitwood, Tom (1997). Dementia Reconsidered. http://www.alzheimer-europe.org/DE/Ethics/Definitions-and-approaches/Other-ethical-principles/Personhood Amir, D. (1993). Research in Music Therapy: Quanitative or Qualitative? Nordic Journal of Music, vol. 2(2). Koelsch, S. (2009). A Neuroscientific Perspective on Music Therapy. The Neurosciences and Music III 1169: 374-384. http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n15/mente/musica.html Laurence O’Donnell III (1999)
References, con’t.Magill,L.(2008). The Meaning of the Music: The Role of Music in Palliative Care Music Therapy as Perceived by Bereaved Caregivers of Advanced Cancer Patients. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine.McCaffrey, Ruth (2008).Music Listening. Its Effects in Creating a Healing Environment. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, vol. 46, No. 10.Palmer, B. (2006). Therapeutic Benefits of Musical Rhythm. http://stress.about.com/od/tensiontamers/a/music_therapy.htmScott, E. (2011). About.com Stress Management - Music and Your Body.Sole,C., Mercadal-Brotons,M., Gallego,S., & Riera, M. (2010). Contributions of Music to Aging Adults Quality of Life. Journal of Music Therapy.
References con’tTravers,C.& Barlett,H. (2011). Silver Memories: Implementation and evaluation of a unique radio program for older people. Aging and Mental Health.Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_therapyWitzke, J., Rhone,R.a., Backhaus,D., & Sahver,A. (2008). How Sweet the Sound. Research Evidence for the Use of Music in Alzheimer’s Dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CrZXz10FcVMFeil, Naomi. (2009).http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ketz-mJ-x-QPBSNewsHour (2012)