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Motivation in Organizations. Chapter 7: 205-222 Organizational Behavior 261 Gabrielle Durepos. Outline. Towards an understanding of motivation Intrinsic versus Extrinsic motivation Early theories of motivation Hedonism Taylor’s Scientific Management and Motivation

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motivation in organizations
Motivation in Organizations

Chapter 7: 205-222

Organizational Behavior 261

Gabrielle Durepos

outline
Outline
  • Towards an understanding of motivation
  • Intrinsic versus Extrinsic motivation
  • Early theories of motivation
    • Hedonism
    • Taylor’s Scientific Management and Motivation
    • Mayo and the Hawthorn Studies
  • Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Alderfer’s Existence-Relatedness-Growth Theory
    • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
    • Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory
    • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • Conclusions
towards an understanding of motivation
Towards an Understanding of Motivation
  • Work motivation is understood as:
    • An individual’s desire to direct and sustain energy in performing a task
    • Most described as an internal desire “to move”
  • Individual motivation is related to an individual’s characteristics
    • i.e. self-efficacy, locus of control, ability
  • There are many theories of motivation
    • There is no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ theory of motivation
  • OB theories of motivation draw on psychology literature
    • Psychological literature defines motivation as:
      • An internal process that acts in governing / guiding choices and maintaining behavior or voluntary activity over time
intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation
  • Extrinsic Motivation
    • Refers to an influence to the motivation level from external sources
    • Traditionally viewed as negative
      • “oh… you are only doing that so you can get something out of it…”
    • Limited effectiveness, short term duration
    • Has been shown to negatively affect intrinsic motivation
    • Examples – praise, salary, status, bonus
  • Intrinsic Motivation
    • Refers to an influence to the motivation level from internal sources
    • Traditionally viewed as positive
      • “I am doing this cause I want to do it…”
    • Examples – excitement about a work challenge, pride in making a difference, personal development & growth that comes from learning a new task
early theories of motivation hedonism
Early Theories of Motivation: Hedonism
  • Refers to the belief that we actively seek out pleasure and try to avoid pain
  • Hedonism assumes that humans have “choice”
  • Assumes humans are rational in their thought process
  • Became known as the “carrot” and “stick” approach
    • http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=motivation+and+leadership&emb=0&aq=f#q=motivation%20and%20rewards%20in%20organisation&emb=0
  • Most theories of motivation are based on the concept of hedonism
early theories of motivation taylor s scientific management and motivation
Early Theories of Motivation:Taylor’s Scientific Management and Motivation
  • Taylor is concerned with inefficiency at work due to:
    • Attitude of workers, methods of work & system of management control

 One way he redressed this was by introducing a system of motivation

  • Taylor assumes the worker as:
    • Lazy
    • Concerned only with financial rewards
    • Having a drive to work hard ONLY if rewarded financially, i.e. a piece rate system
  • This theory is based on extrinsic motivation
  • Later studies (human relations school) show that money is not the sole motivator at work
early theories of motivation mayo the hawthorn studies
Early Theories of Motivation: Mayo & the Hawthorn Studies
  • Mayo & The Human Relations School:
    • Believed that money is NOT the sole motivator for hard work
    • Humans are motivated by the social relationships they have with other humans at work
    • Work is a key place where humans socialize
  • The study of human relationships at work is still prominent today
  • This theory is based on extrinsic motivation
contemporary theories of motivation
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
  • Contemporary theories of motivation are more sophisticated
    • They account for many factors in the study of motivation & complexity of human behavior
  • Have been classified as:
    • Content Theories (Needs Theories)
      • All people strive to fulfill certain needs
      • Look at the “content” of those needs – what are the needs that people are seeking to fulfill?
      • Are they safety needs, self esteem needs, self actualization needs?
      • Looks at the “what”
    • Process Theories
      • Refer to the actual process by which individuals are motivated
      • What mental processes do people use to inform what they will do? How are people motivated at work?
      • Do they compare themselves with others to gauge their work efforts? Do they feel that the effort they “put in” will mirror what they “get out”?
      • Looks at the “how”
contemporary theories of motivation content theories maslow s hierarchy of needs
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • All humans have needs which they are motivated to fulfill
  • Focus on psychological wellness
  • Human needs exist in a hierarchically structured form
  • Lower level needs must be met before higher level needs can be met
  • Those at the top (growth needs) are intrinsically motivated. Those at the bottom (basic needs) are extrinsically motivated
  • As lower level needs are satisfied, they no longer primarily drive behavior & higher needs become motivating
contemporary theories of motivation content theories criticisms of maslow s hierarchy of needs
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:Criticisms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Seen as too rigid
  • Individual needs not always clustered around these categories
  • Satisfying one level of needs does not always lead to the next level of motivation described
    • Some individuals may satisfy their needs in a different order
  • Little empirical research supporting the theory
    • Difficult to test empirically
  • Doesn’t explain how to motivate people
    • Specifically in low paying jobs beyond the lower level needs
contemporary theories of motivation content theories alderfer s existence relatedness growth theory
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:Alderfer’s Existence-Relatedness-Growth Theory
  • This is a “needs theory” based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  • Alderfer outlines three areas of needs
    • Existence (akin to Maslow’s physiological and safety needs)
    • Relatedness (akin to Maslow’s social needs)
    • Growth (akin to Maslow’s self-esteem and self-actualization needs)
  • The three levels of needs are:
    • Not mutually exclusive
    • Always present
  • Progression from one level to the next:
    • Individuals move freely between various types of needs; so existence needs to not have to be met prior to relatedness needs
    • More suited to explain complexity of human life than a linear model
  • Criticism
    • Research has not validated Alderfer’s ERG theory
contemporary theories of motivation content theories mcgregor s theory x and theory y
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
  • Borrows heavily from Maslow in its emphasis on understanding human needs
  • McGregor believes that there are two theories of employee-management:
    • Theory X – Managers view employees as:
      • Lazy, only work hard if monitored closely
      • Akin to Maslow’s lower level needs
      • Extrinsically motivated
    • Theory Y – Managers view employees as:
      • Wanting to work hard, can be autonomous, valued strategic resources
      • Akin to Maslow’s upper level needs
      • Intrinsically motivated
      • Theory Y is sometimes difficult to support
        • Due to difficult financial times
contemporary theories of motivation content theories herzberg s motivator hygiene theory
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory
  • Theory of needs that divides needs into two distinct categories:
    • Motivators
      • Have an effect on level of motivation
      • Are intrinsic to the individual
      • Examples: the challenge of work provided, the importance of one’s contributions, achievement of personal growth
    • Hygiene
      • Do not have an effect on level of motivation
      • If not present, these have an effect on work dissatisfaction
      • Are extrinsic to the individual
      • Examples: work environment, characteristics of the supervisor, salary
  • Research on this theory has mixed results
    • Some researchers support it
contemporary theories of motivation content theories mcclelland s learned needs theory
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • Develops a “needs theory” where needs are
    • Learned from society – people develop needs through socialization
    • Needs can be taught
    • Are not inherent – people are not born with certain needs
  • McClelland notes that there are three areas of needs 
    • Need for Power
    • Need for Achievement
    • Need for Affiliation
  • Research has shown that:
    • “need for achievement” can be a good predictor of job performance when coupled with a supportive work environment
    • Managers with a high need for power and high discipline make the best motivators
  • Criticism - can a “need for achievement” be learned!?
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Work motivation is understood as:
    • The individual’s desire to direct and sustain energy towards performing a task
    • Most describe an internal desire “to move”
  • Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic
  • There are many theories of motivation
    • There is not one best theory of motivation
    • Some theories are better suited for certain situations
  • Human behavior is very complex
    • Can not assume that applying one theory of motivation will enable us to fully understand the process of motivation
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