Training in Organizations. Using the Diagnostic Model & Job Task Analyses. HRD Components. Training: Providing knowledge, skills, and abilities used in a job Development: Preparing for future responsibilities OD: Planning interventions to enhance organizational effectiveness
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Using the Diagnostic Model
Job Task Analyses
Training: Providing knowledge, skills, and abilities used in a job
Development: Preparing for future responsibilities
OD: Planning interventions to enhance organizational effectiveness
Career development: Planning and managing career stages
HRM: Formal systems that ensure the best use of employee talent
HR research and information systems
Comp and benefits
HRD: Subset of HRM that is concerned with developing employee skills
Training and development
Career developmentHRM and HRD
Employee learning objectiveStrategic Alignment
HRD becomes strategic when it:
Learning organization – one that can respond to external changes (lessons of experience) by altering organizational behavior
Organizational learning – describes certain types of learning activities or processes that may occur at any one of several levels in an organization – individual, team, or organization
…of environment, strategies, and resources to determine where to emphasize training
…of the activities to be performed in order to determine the KSAs needed.
…of performance, knowledge, and skills in order to determine who needs training.
Issues in training design
Trainee readiness and motivation
Principles of learning
Characteristics of successful trainers
Lowest level of learningBloom’s Taxonomy
Consists of factors that initiate, direct, and sustain behavior over time.
Is different for everyone.
Can be understood by examining theories that explain how events affect behavior.Motivation
Visual behavior over time.
Retention will be increased by appealing to all learning styles.
Used when content is complex or when learner does not have background
Example: Learning new software
Most commonly used
Example: Learning to type
Used when learning a difficult task that requires specific insight
Example: lead a team; debug software
Example: learning to complete forms or programs that are used on a regular basis (SAP)
ADDIE Model – another look behavior over time.
Examines competencies (KSAs) needed as organizations and jobs change.
Compares current job requirements with employee knowledge and skills.
Focuses on individual employees and how they perform their jobs.
1. Gather data.
4. Calculate cost.
3. Propose solutions.
Define purpose and intent. behavior over time.
Provide the starting point for objectives.
Define what participants will be able to do at the end of training.
Measuring participant outcomes.
Measuring training effectiveness.Goals and Objectives
Source: Holly Dolezalek, “2004 Industry Report,” Training (October 2004): 32.
Reaction behavior over time. – how the participants felt about the program
Learning – how participants increased/changed their knowledge, skills, and attitudes
Behavior – how the participants changed their behavior on the job
Results – how the program affected the organizational goalsKirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation
• Checklists behavior over time.
• Pre- and post-tests
2. LearningMeasuring Results (Kirkpatrick)
• Performance tests behavior over time.
• Critical incidents
• 360-degree feedback
• Progress toward
• ROI analysis
• Cost-benefit analysis
4. ResultsMeasuring Results (Kirkpatrick)
apprenticeship training behavior over time.
on-the-job training (OJT)
transfer of trainingKey Terms