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Training in Organizations. Using the Diagnostic Model & Job Task Analyses. HRD Components. Training: Providing knowledge, skills, and abilities used in a job Development: Preparing for future responsibilities OD: Planning interventions to enhance organizational effectiveness

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Training in organizations

Training in Organizations

Using the Diagnostic Model


Job Task Analyses

Hrd components
HRD Components

Training: Providing knowledge, skills, and abilities used in a job

Development: Preparing for future responsibilities

OD: Planning interventions to enhance organizational effectiveness

Career development: Planning and managing career stages

Hrm and hrd

HRM: Formal systems that ensure the best use of employee talent

HR research and information systems

Union/Labor relations

Employee assistance

Comp and benefits



HRD: Subset of HRM that is concerned with developing employee skills

Training and development

Organizational development

Career development


Shared hrd hrm responsibilities
Shared HRD/HRM Responsibilities

  • Organization/job design

  • Human resource planning

  • Performance management systems

  • Selection and staffing

Strategic alignment

Strategic goal

Long-term objective

Short-term objective

Employee learning objective

Strategic Alignment

HRD becomes strategic when it:

  • Participates in and educates others on strategic planning.

  • Links the outcomes of HRD to organizational goals.

Learning organization vs organizational learning
Learning Organizationvs.Organizational Learning

Learning organization – one that can respond to external changes (lessons of experience) by altering organizational behavior

Organizational learning – describes certain types of learning activities or processes that may occur at any one of several levels in an organization – individual, team, or organization

The learning organization
The Learning Organization

  • Encourages systems thinking.

  • Encourages internal and external networking.

  • Embraces change.

  • Adapts to changes in the environment.

The systems approach to training and development
The Systems Approach to Training and Development

  • Four Phases (Sometimes 5 – ADDIE)

    • Needs assessment (analysis)

    • Program design

    • Training development

    • Implementation

    • Evaluation

Phase 1 conducting the needs assessment
Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment

  • Organization Analysis

    • An examination of the environment, strategies, and resources of the organization to determine where training emphasis should be placed.

  • Task Analysis

    • The process of determining what the content of a training program should be on the basis of a study of the tasks and duties involved in the job.

  • Person Analysis

    • A determination of the specific individuals who need training.

Needs assessment for training
Needs Assessment for Training

  • Competency assessment

    • Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs.



…of environment, strategies, and resources to determine where to emphasize training

…of the activities to be performed in order to determine the KSAs needed.

…of performance, knowledge, and skills in order to determine who needs training.

Phase 2 designing the training program
Phase 2: Designing the Training Program

Issues in training design

Instructional objectives

Trainee readiness and motivation

Principles of learning

Characteristics of successful trainers

Phase 2 designing the training program1
Phase 2: Designing the Training Program

  • Instructional Objectives

    • Represent the desired outcomes of a training program

      • Performance-centered objectives

    • Provide a basis for choosing methods and materials and for selecting the means for assessing whether the instruction will be successful.

Bloom s taxonomy

Highest level of learning

Lowest level of learning

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Cognitive Objectives

Understanding the adult learner
Understanding the Adult Learner

  • Pedagogy – method by which children learn in elementary/middle schools

  • Androgogy –discipline that studies how adults learn

    • Self-concept

    • Experience

    • Readiness to learn

    • Orientation to learning

    • Motivation to learn


Consists of factors that initiate, direct, and sustain behavior over time.

Is different for everyone.

Can be understood by examining theories that explain how events affect behavior.


Maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs behavior over time.

Principles of learning
Principles of Learning behavior over time.

Learning styles

Visual behavior over time.



Learning Styles

  • Describe the ways individuals learn and process information.

Retention behavior over time.

Retention will be increased by appealing to all learning styles.

Classroom retention
Classroom Retention behavior over time.

  • Students take live course of instruction:

    • 33 Minutes after completing l

      • Students retain 58% of covered information

    • Next day

      • Students retain 33% of covered information

    • 30 days after course

      • Students retain only 13% of covered information

  • How do you insure learned information is used on the job?

Learning curves
Learning Curves behavior over time.

Decreasing returns

Increasing returns

Used when content is complex or when learner does not have background

Example: Learning new software

Most commonly used

Example: Learning to type

Learning curves1
Learning Curves behavior over time.

S-shaped curve

Plateau curve

Used when learning a difficult task that requires specific insight

Example: lead a team; debug software

Example: learning to complete forms or programs that are used on a regular basis (SAP)

The addie model
The ADDIE Model behavior over time.

(5 Phases)

Training in organizations

ADDIE Model – another look behavior over time.






Assessment behavior over time.

  • Process by which an organization’s HRD needs are identified.

  • Identifies gaps between where the organization is and where it would like to be.

Needs assessment levels
Needs Assessment Levels behavior over time.

Examines competencies (KSAs) needed as organizations and jobs change.

(Organizational Strategy)




Job Tasks


Compares current job requirements with employee knowledge and skills.




Focuses on individual employees and how they perform their jobs.


Needs assessment process
Needs Assessment Process behavior over time.

1. Gather data.

5. Implement.

  • Determine

  • training needs.

4. Calculate cost.

3. Propose solutions.

Design behavior over time.

  • Decisions are made regarding:

    • Goals.

    • Objectives.

    • Target audience.

    • Media.

Goals and objectives

Define purpose and intent. behavior over time.





Provide the starting point for objectives.

Define what participants will be able to do at the end of training.

Assist in:

Program design.

Measuring participant outcomes.

Measuring training effectiveness.

Goals and Objectives



Smart objectives
SMART Objectives behavior over time.

  • S Specific

  • MMeasurable

  • AAction-oriented

  • RRealistic

  • TTimely

  • Basic components of an objective:

  • Action

  • Condition

  • Standard

Development behavior over time.

  • The process involves:

    • Selecting instructional methods.

    • Creating the training materials.

Types of training programs orientation
Types of Training Programs: behavior over time.Orientation

  • Explains the organization’s goals and strategies.

  • Reviews policies, procedures, and benefits.

  • Orients the employee to work rules, environment, and coworkers.

Types of training programs skill development
Types of Training Programs: behavior over time.Skill Development

  • Basic skills training

    • Remedial training for underskilled workers

  • Technical and technology training

  • Sales training

  • Interpersonal training

  • Quality training

Other training programs
Other Training Programs behavior over time.

  • Management/supervisory

  • Executive

  • Personal development

  • Work/family issues

  • Wellness

  • Harassment prevention

  • Diversity

  • Workplace violence

Implementation behavior over time.

  • Program is delivered to the audience.

  • Most visible step in the ADDIE process.

Training methods for nonmanagerial employees
Training Methods for behavior over time.Nonmanagerial Employees

  • On-the-Job Training (OJT)

  • Apprenticeship Training

  • Cooperative Training, Internships, and Governmental Training

  • Classroom Instruction

  • Programmed Instruction

  • Audiovisual Methods

  • Computer-based Training and E-Learning

  • Simulation Method

Training methods for nonmanagerial employees1
Training Methods for behavior over time.Nonmanagerial Employees

  • On-the-job training (OJT)

    • Method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer.

  • Drawbacks

    • The lack of a well-structured training environment

    • Poor training skills of managers

    • The absence of well-defined job performance criteria

On the job training
On-the-Job Training behavior over time.

  • Overcoming OJT training problems

    • Develop realistic goals and/or measures for each OJT area.

    • Plan a specific training schedule for each trainee, including set periods for evaluation and feedback.

    • Help managers establish a non-threatening atmosphere conducive to learning.

    • Conduct periodic evaluations, after training is completed, to prevent regression.

Training methods for nonmanagerial employees2
Training Methods for behavior over time.Nonmanagerial Employees

  • Programmed Instruction

    • Referred to as self-directed learning—involves the use of books, manuals, or computers to break down subject matter content into highly organized, logical sequences that demand continuous response on the part of the trainee.

  • Audiovisual Methods

    • Technologies, such as CDs and DVDs, are used to teach skills and procedures by illustrating the steps in a procedure or interpersonal relations.

Training methods for nonmanagerial employees3
Training Methods for behavior over time.Nonmanagerial Employees

  • E-Learning

    • Learning that takes place via electronic media such web and computer-based training (CBT)

    • Allows the firm to bring the training to employees

    • Allows employees to customize their own learning in their own time and space

    • Provides continuously updated training materials.

Training methods for nonmanagerial employees4
Training Methods for behavior over time.Nonmanagerial Employees

  • Apprenticeship training

    • A system of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work.

  • Cooperative Training

    • A training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal educational classes.

Training methods for nonmanagerial employees5
Training Methods for behavior over time.Nonmanagerial Employees

  • Internship Programs

    • Are jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations.

  • Classroom Instruction

    • Enables the maximum number of trainees to be handled by the minimum number of instructors.

    • “Blended” learning—lectures and demonstrations are combined with films, DVDs, and videotapes or computer instruction.

Delivery method of training
Delivery Method of Training behavior over time.

Source: Holly Dolezalek, “2004 Industry Report,” Training (October 2004): 32.

Evaluation behavior over time.

  • Collects descriptive and judgmental information.

  • Involves all key stakeholders.

  • Helps to show ROI.

Kirkpatrick s levels of evaluation

Reaction behavior over time. – how the participants felt about the program

Learning – how participants increased/changed their knowledge, skills, and attitudes

Behavior – how the participants changed their behavior on the job

Results – how the program affected the organizational goals

Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation

Measuring results kirkpatrick

• Checklists behavior over time.

• Questionnaires

• Interviews

• Pre- and post-tests

1. Reaction

2. Learning

Measuring Results (Kirkpatrick)

Measuring results kirkpatrick1

• Performance tests behavior over time.

• Critical incidents

• 360-degree feedback

• Simulations

• Observations

• Performance


• Progress toward



• ROI analysis

• Cost-benefit analysis

3. Behavior

4. Results

Measuring Results (Kirkpatrick)

Key terms

apprenticeship training behavior over time.

behavior modeling

behavior modification


competency assessment

cooperative training



instructional objectives

internship programs

on-the-job training (OJT)

organization analysis


person analysis

task analysis

transfer of training

Key Terms