Dropout Prevention Resources 2012-13. Overview. Statistics Risk Factors Prevention and Intervention Programs Resources/References. Dropout Rates. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/tables/table-scr-1.asp. Dropout Effects.
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Every school day, nearly 7,000 students become dropouts. Annually, that adds up to about 1.2 million students who will not graduate from high school with their peers as scheduled. Lacking a high school diploma, these individuals will be far more likely than graduates to spend their lives periodically unemployed, on government assistance, or cycling in and out of the prison system.
There are almost as many reasons or combinations of reasons why students report that they drop out as there are programs
to address them.
The majority of the reasons fall into the 3 Rs: Relevancy, Relationships, and Resiliency.
In a recent survey, students indicated these top three reasons for dropping out of school:
(Institute of Education Sciences, 2005)
Individual Background Characteristics
• Has a learning disability or emotional disturbance
Early Adult Responsibilities
• High number of work hours
Family Background Characteristics
• Low socioeconomic status
• High family mobility
• Low education level of parents
• Large number of siblings
• Not living with both natural parents
• Family disruption
• Low achievement
• Retention/over-age for grade
• Poor attendance
• Low educational expectations
• Lack of effort
• Low commitment to school
• No extracurricular participation
• Early aggression
Social Attitudes, Values, & Behavior
• High-risk peer group
• High-risk social behavior
• Highly socially active outside of school
Family Engagement/Commitment to Education
• Low educational expectations
• Sibling has dropped out
• Low contact with school
National Dropout Prevention Center at Clemson University and Communities In Schools, Inc., 2007
Only 30 percent of entering high school
freshmen read proficiently.
National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2009
High schools must be improved to give all
students the excellent education that will
prepare them for college and a career,
and to be productive members of society.
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2012
Dynarski, et.al., 2008. www.betterhighschools.org
2. Data Collection—Teacher Based Teams
Identifies students exhibiting early warning signs
that they are at risk for dropping out of high school.
The enhanced EWS Tool v2.0 and accompanying
guides are available free-of-charge on the
National High School Center’s Web site.
Targeted interventions involve matching research
based interventions to student specific need
to assist in eliminating issues contributing
to student dropout.
Research Based Examples:
• Programs to improve students’ classroom behavior and social skills, including Positive Behavioral Intervention Supports (PBIS), behavioral contracts and training in problem-solving skills.
• Targeted models, such as Service Learning, Check and Connect, ALAS, that provide multiple strategies to help students bond with school.
• During IEP meetings, discuss critical risk factors that place students at risk for school dropout and impact the delivery of FAPE.
Improving student academic and behavior outcomes
is about ensuring all students have access to the
most effective and accurately implemented instructional
and behavioral practices and interventions possible.
PBIS provides an operational framework for
achieving these outcomes.
Service-Learning is a teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities.
This enables students to see the meaning and make real world connections to their instruction, thus allowing them to see the relevance of their school activities.
Check & Connect is a comprehensive intervention designed to enhance student engagement at school and with learning for marginalized, disengaged students in grades K-12, through relationship building, problem solving and capacity building, and persistence.
ALASis an evidence-based comprehensive dropout prevention program specifically designed for at-risk youth.
The goals of ALAS are to:
• Safe and orderly school climate where students feel
welcome and supported.
• Extra curricula activities and programs to promote school
bonding for marginalized students.
• Support to students who enter critical transitions without
adequate skills in reading, math, and other core content.
Promote and facilitate the implementation of
Students must universally:
Increase communication between
home and school (i.e., family outreach)
Four Types of Engagement & Associated Factors:
1. Academic engagement refers to time on task, academically engaged time, or credit accrual.
2. Behavioral engagement includes attendance, avoidance of suspension, classroom participation, and involvement in extracurricular activities.
3. Cognitive engagement involves internal indicators including processing academic information or becoming a self-regulated learner.
4. Psychological engagement includes identification with school or a sense of belonging.
The following slides describe resources for dropout prevention and for your school’s programming.
Dropout Prevention: A Practice Guide (NCEE 2008-4025). Dynarski, M., Clarke, L., Cobb, B., Finn, J., Rumberger, R., and Smink, J. (2008). Washington, DC: National Center for Education and Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
This guide provides practical, clear information on critical topics related to dropout prevention and is based on the best available evidence as judged by the review panel.
The mission of the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network is to increase high school graduation rates through research and evidence-based solutions.
They have identified 15 effective strategies that have the most positive impact on the dropout rate, and have developed a database of research-based programs and information available on the website.
A national technical assistance center funded by OSEP to support states in designing evidence based interventions that decrease dropout rates, increase school completion rates and improve reentry/recovery for students with disabilities.
Alliance for Excellent Education. Issue Brief, November 2011. www.all4ed.org
Chapman, C., Laird, J., & KewalRamani, A. (2010). Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972–2008 (NCES 2011-012). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.
C. Hammond, J. Smink, & S. Drew: National Dropout Prevention Center. D. Linton: Communities In Schools, Inc. (May 2007). Dropout Risk Factors and Exemplary Programs: A Technical Report.
Institute of Education Sciences [IES]. (2005). Facts from NLTS2. High school completion for students with disabilities. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncser/pdf/NLTS2_selfdeterm_11_23_05
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, ―Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. (accessed September 7, 2011). http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, The Nation’s Report Card: Reading 2009 (NCES 2010–458). (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009).