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Dropout Prevention in WV

Dropout Prevention in WV

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Dropout Prevention in WV

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  1. Dropout Prevention in WV Shelly DeBerry Student Success Advocate Coordinator West Virginia Department of Education sdeberry@access.k12.wv.us

  2. WV Dropout Data 2008-09 • 124, 388 total enrolled grades 7 – 12 • 3,527 students dropped out grades 7 – 12 • 2.8 % statewide dropout rate • 4 counties had 4% and above dropout rate • 19 counties had 3% - 3.9% dropout rate • 3 counties had 0 – 1% dropout rate • 83.3% graduation rate using Leaver rate calculation (slightly above the national average)

  3. Dropout Prevention Plan • National Governor’s Association Grant to establish a state-wide dropout prevention plan. • Policy and program audit • House Bill 4593 – All counties are to develop a dropout prevention plan that includes: • increasing the graduation rate for the county, • identifying at the earliest age students who are at risk of dropping out and • provide additional options to at risk students.

  4. Who Are Students At Risk? A student at risk is “someone who is unlikely to graduate on schedule with both the skills and the self-esteem necessary to exercise meaningful options in the areas of work, leisure, culture, civic affairs, and inter/intrapersonal relationships.” (Bailey & Stegelin, 2003) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  5. Dropout Prevention: A National Issue Students With Disabilities • Nationwide, dropout rates among students with disabilities for all categories of disability combined is approximately double that of general education peers. • Dropout rates vary substantially among the various categories of disability. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  6. Teen Pregnancy Statistics • Teen girls in the bottom 20% of basic reading and math skills are five times more likely to become mothers over a two-year high school period than teen girls in the top 20%. • Male and female students with low academic achievement are twice as likely to become parents by their senior year of high school compared to students with high academic achievement. (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2003) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  7. Grade Retention and School Dropout • One grade – increases risk by 40% • Two grades – increases risk by 90% (Roderick, M. PDK Research Bulletin, No. 15, 1995) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  8. Characteristics of Dropouts • Absent more than 10 days • Participated in no school activities • Received more counseling • Disliked school • Failed 3-5 classes • Retained one year • Received 5-9 discipline referrals • Were identified in middle school (Huffman, K.L., WVU Dissertation, 1999) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  9. Reasons for Leaving School • Classes were not interesting 47% • Misses too many days and 43% could not catch up • Spent time with people who 42% were not interested in school • Had too much freedom and not 38% enough rules in my life • Was failing in school 35% (The Silent Epidemic: Perspective of High School Dropouts, 2006) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  10. Students’ Reasons for Staying in School • Supportive family • Involvement with committed adult • Persevering attitude • Respectful relationship with teachers • Satisfaction with learning experiences • Relevant curriculum • Fair discipline policies (Christenson et al., 2000) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  11. Attendance and Truancy:The Impact on Dropout Truancy (excessive absenteeism) has been identified as one of the top ten major problems in our schools. (DeKalb, J., 1999) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  12. Compulsory School Age • House Bill 4593 • Raised to age 17 years old beginning with the Freshmen class of 2011-12.

  13. Variables Associated With Dropouts Status Variables • Age, gender • Socioeconomic background • Ethnicity • Native language • Mobility • Family structure (Lehr et al., Essential Tools, 2004) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  14. Variables Associated With Dropouts Alterable Variables • Grades, retention • Disruptive behavior • Absenteeism • School policies, climate • Sense of belonging • Attitude toward school • Support in the home (Lehr et al., Essential Tools, 2004) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  15. Categories of Factors ContributingTo Students Dropping Out • Individual factors • Family factors • School factors • Community factors National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  16. Individual Factors • Lack of future orientation • Inadequate peer relationships • Drug abuse • Pregnancy • Special learning needs • Depression National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  17. Family Factors • Poverty • Low expectations • Abuse • Mobility of family • Parent level of education • Language and literacy levels National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  18. School Factors • Lack of program for challenged students • No significant, interested adult • Lack of alternatives for learning • Lack of active learning instruction • No individual learning plans • Behavior and discipline issues • Retention policies National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  19. Community Factors • Lack of involvement with schools • Lack of support for schools • Non-caring environment • Low expectations • Violence • Few recreational facilities National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  20. While no one factor or even several factors put students at risk, combinations of factors can help identify potential dropouts. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  21. The Bad News About Dropout Prevention • Awareness is lacking by most people • Apathy is common and the issue is seen as someone else’s problem • Applied knowledgeis not always • used by decision makers • Acquisition of information about successis inadequate National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  22. The Good News About Dropout Prevention • Identifiable • Independent • Interrelated • Irrefutable National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  23. Sixth Grade Predictors of “Falling Off Track” • Attending school 80% or less of the time • Receiving a poor final behavior mark • Failing math • Failing English (Balfanz and Herzog, 2006) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  24. Dropout Prevention Is Not Rocket Science but it is Brain Surgery Academic Achievement Civic Responsibility Behavior Modification National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  25. Effective Strategies for Increasing Graduation Rates Dr. Jay Smink, Executive DirectorNational Dropout Prevention Center/NetworkClemson University

  26. A School and Community Perspective • Systemic renewal • School and community collaboration • Safe learning environments National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  27. Systemic Renewal • Policies • Populations • Personnel • Programs • Practices • Partners • Pennies National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  28. School-Community Collaboration Schools can no longer be islands in communities with no bridges to the mainland. Bridges must be built to connect schools, homes, and communities. (Center for Mental Health in Schools, 2001) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  29. Creating Safe Learning Environments A Safe Learning Environment • Provides a warm and welcoming atmosphere that fosters a spirit of acceptance and caring for every child • Is free of intimidation, violence, and fear • Clearly communicates behavior expectations that are consistently enforced and fairly applied • Builds positive, responsible character National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  30. Early Interventions • Family Engagement • Early Childhood Education • Early Literacy Development National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  31. Family Engagement When families are engaged in children’s learning, students are more likely to: • Attend school regularly • Display more positive attitudes about school • Graduate from high school and enroll in postsecondary programs • Refrain from destructive activities such as alcohol use and violence (Henderson & Mapp, 2003) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  32. Early Childhood Education Impact of Early Childhood Education . . . Perry Preschool Study – High-quality Head Start programs • Decreased level of school dropouts • Lowered truancy • Reduced teen pregnancy • Lessened need to be in Special Education (Barnett, 1995) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  33. Early Literacy Development Research • At-risk students who have a strong reading teacher for two consecutive years can be successful readers. (Wren, 2003) • Reading aloud to children is the single most important activity for building the knowledge required for success in reading. (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2002). National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  34. Basic Core Strategies • Mentoring • Service-Learning • Alternative Schooling • After-School Program Experiences National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  35. Mentoring Mentoring has many formats … Traditional: One adult with one student Peer: One older youth with a younger youth Group/Team: One or more adults with several youth Telementoring: One adult with one youth using the Internet National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  36. Service-Learning Essential Elements of Good Service-Learning Programs • Integrated into the curriculum • Active learning • Interesting and exciting • Connected to community National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  37. Alternative Schooling Innovative Approaches • Self-contained classrooms • Magnet schools • Separate alternative schools • School-within-a-school • Residential programs • Middle College/Early College National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  38. Afterschool Program Experiences Components of Successful Programs • Academic focus • Enrichment and accelerated learning • Supervised recreation • Community service • Collaboration and partnerships • Active family involvement National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  39. Making the Most of Instruction • Professional development • Active learning • Educational technology • Individualized instruction • Career and technical education National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  40. Professional Development The single largest factor affecting the academic growth of students is the differences in the effectiveness of individual classroom teachers. (Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System, Sanders, 1998) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  41. Active Learning Teaching Strategies Include • Cooperative learning • Multiple intelligences/learning styles theory • Project-based learning National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  42. Educational Technology Research on Using Technology • Is a positive influence on students at risk of failure (Day, 2002) • Teaches “real work applications” to help students succeed outside the classroom • Increases student motivation, raises the success rate of students performing complex tasks, and changes classroom roles and organization (Means, 1997) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  43. Individualized Instruction Encourages the learner to be the producer of knowledge with... • Problem-based learning & reciprocal teaching • Peer tutoring • Cooperative learning • Journaling • Hands-on projects • Role play and simulation National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  44. Career and Technical Education Career Technical Education (CTE) includes a wide array of career-based instruction • K-12 career education • A comprehensive guidance program • School- and work-based experiences National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  45. Career and Technical Education Impact of CTE • Enrollment in CTE does not increase the likelihood of students dropping out.(USDE, 2003) • Career guidance increased students remaining in school from 50% to 85%. (Bauer, 1992) • Higher percentages of CTE experiences lower the probability of dropping out. (Plank, 2001) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  46. Look at the Data! GRADUATION RATES Ask the Questions! Is it GOOD enough? Can we do BETTER? What can we do to be the BEST? DROPOUT PREVENTION PLAN Does it reflect the BEST research available? How can we do it even BETTER? Will it be GOOD enough for your children? National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  47. Contact Information National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Clemson University 209 Martin Street Clemson, SC 29631-1555 Phone: 864-656-2599 Fax: 864-656-0136 E-mail: ndpc@clemson.eduwww.dropoutprevention.org National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

  48. “Every school-day in America, 171 school buses loaded with children leave school never to return. That is our daily dropout rate.” Quoted by Franklin Schargel in his book: "Helping Students Graduate, published by: Eye on Education.