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Dropout Prevention. Renee’ Henry November 29, 2012 EDUC 303: Electronic Instructional Materials Dr. Kariuki. What is dropping out ?.
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Dropout Prevention Renee’ Henry November 29, 2012 EDUC 303: Electronic Instructional Materials Dr. Kariuki
What is dropping out ? • Most commonly, dropping out refers to a student quitting school before he or she graduates or avoiding entering a University. It cannot always be ascertained that a student has dropped out, as he or she may stop attending without terminating enrollment • Means leaving a school or group for practical reasons, necessities, or disillusionment with the system from which the individual in question leaves.
Reasons Why Students Dropout • to find employment • avoidbullying • family emergency • poorgrades • depression and other mental illnesses • unexpected pregnancy • bad environment • lack of freedom • boredom from lack of lessons relevant to their desired occupations • dislike of school • feeling unmotivated
Warning Signs • Absenteeism being the most common indicator of student disengagement and a significant predictor of dropping out. • Low grades, discipline and behavior problems, lack of involvement in class and school activities, pregnancy, being held back a grade or more. • Students who transfer from another school, and those who experience difficulty with the 9th grade transition year. • Nearly 38 percent of the young adults said the freedom students enjoy in high school contributed to their disengagement. In addition to it being too easy to skip class or join in activities outside of school, “too much freedom” included the school’s lack of order, discipline and rules; failure to ensure students attend class; and inability to help students feel safe.
What Student’s THink • 81 percent of the survey respondents said that if schools had provided opportunities for real-world learning (internships, service learning projects, and other opportunities), it would have improved their chances of graduating from high school. • Another 81 percent, wanted better teachers, while three-fourths wanted smaller classes with more individualized instruction. • 55 percent said more should be done to help students who had difficulty learning. • Only a little over half said they could go to a staff person for school problems and less than half had someone in school to talk with about personal problems. • 62 percent of the respondents said their school needed to do more to help students with problems beyond school. • Approximately 70 percent of those surveyed said better communication between school and parents and increased parental involvement in their child’s education are essential to keeping students in school.
Parents Who Are Not Involved in Their Children’s Education • Poor communication between the school and parents was another contributor to students dropping out. Only about half of the respondents said the school contacted the home if they were absent; and only 48 percent of the dropouts said “their school contacted them or their parents to find out why they left school or encourage them to return.” • “Nearly half of the respondents said their parents’ work schedule kept them from knowing more about what was happening at school.” While 68 percent said their parents got more involved when they realized their child was likely to drop out, by then it was too late • The young adults said that more parental involvement may have prevented their dropping out. While 59 percent of their parents were involved in their children’s schooling, more than half of those were involved “mainly for discipline reasons,” according the report. Furthermore, the majority of parents were unaware or just somewhat aware of their child’s grades or that they were about to leave school.
Benefits of Parents Who Are Involved in Their Children’s Education • Parents serve as role models as they demonstrate the importance of community participation. • Parents' involvement is a protective factor against adolescent tobacco use, depression, eating disorders, academic struggles, and other problems. • By staying involved with their child and/or teenager, parents can be a source of support, create a climate for discussing tough issues and serve as role models for responsible and empathic behavior. • Parents can influence their children’s academic progress by encouragement, reinforcement, and modeling. • Enhances children's self-esteem • Improves children's academicachievement • Improves parent-child relationships • Helps parents develop positive attitudes towards school • Better understanding of the schooling process.
Demographics of High-School Dropouts (Percent of who drop out) Historical High School Dropout Rates
Cont’ Statistics On Why Students Dropout far too many students are not graduating on time with a regular diploma; low-income and students of color fare the worst in the dropout epidemic USA (in 2007) • National = 69% • White = 77% • African American = 54% • Hispanic = 56% • Asian American = 81% • Indian American = 51% • Each year, approximately 1.3 million students fail to graduate from high school; more than half are students of color. The graduation rate among students of color is as much as twenty-five percentage points below their white peers. • A student within the age range of sixteen to twenty-four years old who comes from the lowest quartile of family income is about seven times more likely to have dropped out of high school than his/her counterpart who comes from the highest quartile
What Are the Costs of Dropping Out of High School? • Dropouts suffer from reduced earnings and lost opportunities; there are also significant social and economic costs to the rest of the nation. • If the United States‘ likely dropouts from the Class of 2006 had graduated, the nation could have saved more than $17 billion in Medicaid and expenditures for uninsured health care over the course of those young people‘s lifetimes. • If U.S. high schools and colleges were to raise the graduation rates of Hispanic, African American, and Native American students to the levels of white students by 2020, the potential increase in personal income would add more than $310 billion to the U.S. economy. • Over the course of his or her lifetime, a high school dropout earns, on average, about $260,000 less than a high school graduate
Cont’ What Are the Costs of Dropping Out of High School? • Increasing the graduation rate and college matriculation of male students in the United States by just 5 percent could lead to combined savings and revenue of almost $8 billion each year by reducing crime related costs . • Dropouts from the Class of 2010 alone will cost the nation more than $337 billion in lost wages over the course of their lifetimes.
Ways to prevent students from dropping out • Mentoring/Tutoring- one-to-one caring, supportive relationship between a mentor and a mentee that is based on trust. Tutoring, also a one-to-one activity, focuses on academics and is an effective way to address specific needs such as reading, writing, or math competencies. • Service Learning- connects meaningful community service experiences with academic learning. This teaching/learning method promotes personal and social growth, career development, and civic responsibility and can be a powerful vehicle for effective school reform at all grade levels. • After School Opportunities- Many schools provide after-school and summer enhancementprograms that eliminate information loss and inspire interest in a variety of areas. Such experiences are especially important for students at risk of school failure. • Early Childhood Education - The most effective way to reduce the number of children who will ultimately drop out is to provide the best possible classroom instruction from the beginning of their school experience.
Cont’ Ways to prevent students from dropping out • Early Literacy Development- Early interventions to help low-achieving students recognize that focusing on reading and writing skills is the foundation for effective learning in all subjects. • Professional Development- Teachers who work with youth at high risk of academic failure need to feel supported and need to have an avenue by which they continueto develop skills, techniques, and learn about innovative strategies. • Active Learning- When educators show students that there are different ways to learn, students find new and creative ways to solve problems, achieve success, and become lifelong learners. • Educational Technology- Technology offers some of the best opportunities for delivering instruction that engages students in authentic learning, addresses multiple intelligences, and adapts to student’s learning styles. • Individualized Instruction- A customized individual learning program for each student allows teachers flexibility with the instructional program and extracurricular activities. • Making the Most of the Wider Community- Students who come to school bring traces of a wider community; when students leave school, either before or after graduation, they return to the community.
Cont’ Ways to prevent students from dropping out • Systemic Renewal- Systemic renewal calls for a continuing process of evaluating goals and objectives related to school policies, practices, and organizational structures as they impact a diverse group of learners. • School-Community Collaboration- When all groups in a community provide collective support to the school, a strong infrastructure sustains a caring environment where youth can thrive and achieve prepare them for the larger demands of today’s workplace. • Career and Technical Education- A quality guidance program is essential for all students. • Safe Schools- Violence prevention means providing daily experiences at all grade levels that enhance positive social attitudes and effective interpersonal skills in all students.
Cont’ Ways to prevent students from dropping out • Family Engagement- Research consistently finds that family involvement has a direct, positive effect on children’s achievement and is the most accurate predictor of a student’s success in school. • Alternative Schooling- provides potential dropouts a variety of options that can lead to graduation, with programs paying special attention to the students’ individual social needs and the academic requirements for a high school diploma • Individualized Instruction- A customized individual learning program for each student allows teachers flexibility with the instructional program and extracurricular activities
Drop-Out Prevention Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_qjs-WhKxfM
Websites http://www.all4ed.org/files/HighSchoolDropouts.pdf http://www.statisticbrain.com/high-school-dropout-statistics/ http://www.americaspromise.org/our-work/Dropout-Prevention.aspx http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/studentschoolsvcs/student_services_alt/alternative_programs/ http://www.betterhighschools.org/docs/nhsc_approachestodropoutprevention.pdf