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Renewing the Sectional Struggle, 1848–1854

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  1. Chapter 18 Renewing the Sectional Struggle, 1848–1854

  2. Question All of the following were true of popular sovereignty EXCEPT • it developed because politicians felt the wisest strategy was to sit on the lid of the slavery issue and ignore the boiling beneath. • it was intended to completely ignore the agitation of zealous northern abolitionists and impassioned southern “fire-eaters.” • it was the doctrine that stated that the sovereign people of a territory, under the general principles of the Constitution, should themselves determine the status of slavery. • advocates of the principle hoped to dissolve the most stubborn national issue of the day into a series of local issues.

  3. Question All of the following were true of the Free Soil party EXCEPT • it was organized by ardent antislavery men in the North, who distrusted both Cass and Taylor. • they came out foursquare for the Wilmot Proviso and against slavery in the territories. • their candidate, Martin Van Buren, won enough electoral votes to force the election into the House of Representatives, where they ultimately were able to force the repeal of the Gag Rule. • going beyond other antislavery groups, they broadened their appeal by advocating federal aid for internal improvements and by urging free government homesteads for settlers.

  4. Question All of the following were true of the California Gold Rush EXCEPT • the territorial government was well-prepared for the onslaught of gold-seekers. • tens of thousands of people came into the future Golden State. • a high proportion of the newcomers were lawless men. • many ‘49ers were accompanied or followed by virtueless women.

  5. Question The Underground Railroad was • an early experiment in subterranean (“subway”) stations in the cities of Boston, Philadelphia, and New York. • the mythical tunnel built through a high pass in the Rockies by legendary ex-slave John Henry in his fatal duel with a mechanical steam drill. • a key component of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, proposed by Stephen Douglas, in order to facilitate a northern railroad terminus in Chicago. • a virtual freedom train consisting of antislavery homes, through which runaway slaves were spirited by abolitionists “conductors.”

  6. Question All of the following were true of the concessions in the Compromise of 1850 EXCEPT the • North got California admitted as a free state. • South got New Mexico and Utah open to popular sovereignty. • North got abolition of both the slave trade and of slavery in the District of Columbia. • South a more stringent fugitive-slave law, going beyond that of 1793.

  7. Question All of the following were true of the Fugitive Slave Law EXCEPT • “the Bloodhound Bill” stirred up a storm of opposition in the North. • the fleeing slaves could not testify in their own behalf, and they were denied a jury trial. • the federal commissioner who handled the case of a fugitive would receive ten dollars if the runaway were freed and five dollars if not. • freedom-loving northerners who aided the slave to escape were liable to heavy fines and jail sentences.

  8. Question All of the following were true of Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 EXCEPT it • guaranteed the American right of transit across the isthmus in return for Washington’s pledge to maintain the “perfect neutrality” of the route, so that the “free transit of traffic might not be interrupted.” • stipulated that neither America nor Britain would fortify or seek exclusive control over any future isthmian waterway. • avoided a full-blown confrontation with Britain. • was later rescinded by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901.

  9. Question All of the following were true of the Ostend Manifesto EXCEPT • it urged that the Pierce administration offer $120 million for Cuba. • it presumed that if Spain refused the offer, the United States would “be justified in wresting” the island from the Spanish. • Northern free soilers rose up in wrath against the “manifesto of brigands.” • the red-faced Pierce administration pushed the plans to acquire Cuba through Congress, but the law was overturned by the Supreme Court.

  10. Question The Treaty of Kanagawa was signed between the United States and • the Apache. • the Sioux. • China. • Japan.

  11. Question All of the following were consequences of the Kansas-Nebraska Act EXCEPT • it effectively repudiated the Missouri Compromise. • it repealed the Compromise of 1850. • antislavery northerners were angered by what they condemned as an act of bad faith by the “Nebrascals” and their “Nebrascality.” • all future compromise with the South would be immeasurably more difficult, and without compromise, there was bound to be conflict.

  12. Answer All of the following were true of popular sovereignty EXCEPT • it developed because politicians felt the wisest strategy was to sit on the lid of the slavery issue and ignore the boiling beneath. • it was intended to completely ignore the agitation of zealous northern abolitionists and impassioned southern “fire-eaters.” (correct) • it was the doctrine that stated that the sovereign people of a territory, under the general principles of the Constitution, should themselves determine the status of slavery. • advocates of the principle hoped to dissolve the most stubborn national issue of the day into a series of local issues. Hint: See pages 416–417.

  13. Answer All of the following were true of the Free Soil party EXCEPT • it was organized by ardent antislavery men in the North, who distrusted both Cass and Taylor. • they came out foursquare for the Wilmot Proviso and against slavery in the territories. • their candidate, Martin Van Buren, won enough electoral votes to force the election into the House of Representatives, where they ultimately were able to force the repeal of the Gag Rule. (correct) • going beyond other antislavery groups, they broadened their appeal by advocating federal aid for internal improvements and by urging free government homesteads for settlers. Hint: See page 417.

  14. Answer All of the following were true of the California Gold Rush EXCEPT • the territorial government was well-prepared for the onslaught of gold-seekers. (correct) • tens of thousands of people came into the future Golden State. • a high proportion of the newcomers were lawless men. • many ‘49ers were accompanied or followed by virtueless women. Hint: See page 419.

  15. Answer The Underground Railroad was • an early experiment in subterranean (“subway”) stations in the cities of Boston, Philadelphia, and New York. • the mythical tunnel built through a high pass in the Rockies by legendary ex-slave John Henry in his fatal duel with a mechanical steam drill. • a key component of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, proposed by Stephen Douglas, in order to facilitate a northern railroad terminus in Chicago. • a virtual freedom train consisting of antislavery homes, through which runaway slaves were spirited by abolitionists “conductors.” (correct) Hint: See pages 420–421.

  16. Answer All of the following were true of the concessions in the Compromise of 1850 EXCEPT the • North got California admitted as a free state. • South got New Mexico and Utah open to popular sovereignty. • North got abolition of both the slave trade and of slavery in the District of Columbia. (correct) • South a more stringent fugitive-slave law, going beyond that of 1793. Hint: See page 425.

  17. Answer All of the following were true of the Fugitive Slave Law EXCEPT • “the Bloodhound Bill” stirred up a storm of opposition in the North. • the fleeing slaves could not testify in their own behalf, and they were denied a jury trial. • the federal commissioner who handled the case of a fugitive would receive ten dollars if the runaway were freed and five dollars if not. (correct) • freedom-loving northerners who aided the slave to escape were liable to heavy fines and jail sentences. Hint: See pages 425–426.

  18. Answer All of the following were true of Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 EXCEPT it • guaranteed the American right of transit across the isthmus in return for Washington’s pledge to maintain the “perfect neutrality” of the route, so that the “free transit of traffic might not be interrupted.” (correct) • stipulated that neither America nor Britain would fortify or seek exclusive control over any future isthmian waterway. • avoided a full-blown confrontation with Britain. • was later rescinded by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901. Hint: See page 428.

  19. Answer All of the following were true of the Ostend Manifesto EXCEPT • it urged that the Pierce administration offer $120 million for Cuba. • it presumed that if Spain refused the offer, the United States would “be justified in wresting” the island from the Spanish. • Northern free soilers rose up in wrath against the “manifesto of brigands.” • the red-faced Pierce administration pushed the plans to acquire Cuba through Congress, but the law was overturned by the Supreme Court. (correct) Hint: See page 430.

  20. Answer The Treaty of Kanagawa was signed between the United States and • the Apache. • the Sioux. • China. • Japan. (correct) Hint: See page 431.

  21. Answer All of the following were consequences of the Kansas-Nebraska Act EXCEPT • it effectively repudiated the Missouri Compromise. • it repealed the Compromise of 1850. (correct) • antislavery northerners were angered by what they condemned as an act of bad faith by the “Nebrascals” and their “Nebrascality.” • all future compromise with the South would be immeasurably more difficult, and without compromise, there was bound to be conflict. Hint: See page 434.