APUSH CHAPTER 17 MANIFEST DESTINY and ITS LEGACY 1841-1848
“Manifest Destiny” • First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845. • ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federalative development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth." • A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.
Aroostook “War,” 1839 • The only war ever declared by a state. • Between the Canadian region of New Brunswick and the state of Maine. • Cause: The expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials. • Congress called up 50,000 men and voted for $10,000,000 to pay for the “war.” • General Winfield Scott arranged a truce, and a border commission was convened to resolve the issue.
Texas Independence (1836-1845)
TEXAS WAR OF INDEPENDENCE • Americans began moving into Texas in the 1820’s and brought their slaves with them. • War fought by Texans against Mexico because they believed their rights had been violated. • Won by Texans in 1836 and requests to enter the U.S.
Reasons Texans Opposed Mexican Citizenship Did not want to adopt Mexican customs Did not see Mexico as their own country Few spoke Spanish, and most found the Spanish Catholic Church alien to them
Major Battle Outcome Gonzales Mexicans retreat Texans defeated after Inflicting serious losses On Mexicans Alamo San Jacinto Texans prevail
TEXAS WAR OF INDEPENDENCE • President Jackson and Van Buren refused to recognize Texas statehood because of slavery. • Texas became its own country with Sam Houston president, 1836 to 1845. • Mexico never recognized the independence of Texas.
TEXAS WAR OF INDEPENDENCE • Texas entered as a U.S. state in 1845. • Mexico vowed if Texas became part of the U.S., this would be an act of war. • One cause of the war with Mexico in 1846.
Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836 Sam Houston(1793-1863) Steven Austin(1793-1836)
Remember the Alamo! Mr. Barberree before The Atkins Diet
The Battle of the Alamo General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo
Overland Immigration to the West • Between 1840 and 1860, more than250,000 people made the trekwestward.
Religious freedom Opportunity to own their Own farms Reasons Americans Went West To fulfill the concept Of Manifest Destiny To convert Native Americans To Christianity To act as trailblazers
Oregon Trail California Trail Pony Express Trail Trails to The West Santa Fe Trail Butterfield Overland Mail Trail Mormon Trail Old Spanish Trail
Terrain between the frontier and the Pacific was difficult Many Challenges Faced Americans Who Moved West The typical trip west took five to six months Travelers feared attacks by Native American warriors
The Doomed Donner Party April, 1846 – April, 1847
The Doomed Donner Party CANNIBALISM ! ! Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen Breen • Of the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to California! James Reed & Wife
The Election of 1844
The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight! • By the mid-1840s,“Oregon Fever” wasspurred on by thepromise of free land. • The joint British-U. S.occupation ended in1846.
Texas(the beast):I fear I cannot carry you into the Presidential Chair.Polk:Dear Texas, I knew you cannot—I wish I had rode some other horse but it is too late to repent.
“JAMES K. POLK”by They Might Be Giants In 1844, the Democrats were splitThe three nominees for the presidential candidateWere Martin Van Buren, a former president and an abolitionistJames Buchanan, a moderateLewis Cass, a general and expansionistFrom Nashville came a dark horse riding upHe was James K. Polk, Napoleon of the Stump!
“JAMES K. POLK”by They Might Be Giants • Austere, severe, he held few people dearHis oratory filled his foes with fearThe factions soon agreedHe's just the man we needTo bring about victoryFulfill our Manifest DestinyAnd annex the land the Mexicans commandAnd when the votes were cast the winner wasMister James K. Polk, Napoleon of the Stump!
“JAMES K. POLK”by They Might Be Giants In four short years he met his every goalHe seized the whole southwest from MexicoMade sure the tariffs fellAnd made the English sell the Oregon TerritoryHe built an independent treasuryHaving done all this he sought no second termBut precious few have mourned the passing ofMister James K. Polk, our eleventh president“Young Hickory,” Napoleon of the Stump!
Goals of Polk’s Administration • Lower the tariff. • Resolve the Oregon boundarydispute. • Restore the independent treasury. • Acquire California.
The Bear Flag Republic The Revolt June 14, 1845 John C. Frémont
The Mexican War (1846-1848)
The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 • Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border. • US would forgive American citizens’claims against the Mexican govt. • US would purchase the New Mexicoarea for $5,000,000. • US would California at anyprice. John Slidell
Causes Effects Disputes between the U.S. and Mexico Over claiming Texas as part of the Louisiana Purchase Mexico ceded the U.S. More than 500,000 Square miles of territory Including: California, Utah Nevada, most of New Mexico And Arizona and parts of Colorado and Wyoming Idea of Manifest Destiny Mexican president’s refusal to meet with U.S. envoy to discuss the U.S. purchase Of California territory War with Mexico U.S. paid Mexico $15 million And took over Mexico’s debts Owed to American citizens Mexico’s refusal to recognize the Independence of Texas Dream of Manifest Destiny realized Annexation of Texas in the Union In 1845 Revived question of slavery In new states
General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto “Old Rough and Ready”
General Scott Enters Mexico City “Old Fuss and Feathers”
Wilmot Proviso, 1846 Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first beduly convicted. Congr. David Wilmot(D-PA)
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist,American Negotiator
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico! • Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. • Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico. • U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico(over $3,500,000).
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico’s Provisions United State’s Provisions Ceded over 500,000 square miles of territory Paid Mexico $15 million Claimed $3.25 million in Mexican debts Accepted Rio Grande as Texas border