Religion • Religion, is a personal or institutionalized system of worship and of faith in the sacred & divine
Globalization v. Local Diversity • People care deeply about their religion and draw from their religion their core values & beliefs • Some religions are actually designed to appeal to people throughout the world & others are limited to a certain area • Most religions require exclusive adherence
Universal vs. Ethnic • Universalizing • Appeal to people everywhere • Individual founder (prophet) • Message diffused widely (missionaries) • Followers distributed widely. • Holidays based on events in founder’s life. • Ethnic • Has meaning in particular place only. • Unknown source. • Content focused on place and landscape of origin. • Followers highly clustered. • Holidays based on local climate and agricultural practice.
Universalizing V. Ethnic • Universalizing: • Buddhism • Christian • Islam • Ethnic: • Judaism • Hindu • Shinto • Tribal: • Animism • Shamanism World Patterns 1970 2002 Christian 933 m 2.0 b Islam 503 m 1.3 b Hindu 458 m 900 m Buddhism 180 m 360 m Judaism 14 m 14 m 14 m Secular 850 m Measure of affiliation More than ½ world population adheres to universalizing religions
Universalizing Religion Christianity Islam
Christianity • 2 billion adherents make it most practiced in the world. • Originated in Bethlehem (8-4 BC) and Jerusalem (AD 30) with Jesus Christ. • Spread by missionaries and the Roman Empire (Constantine A.D. 313).
Apostle’s Creed I believe in God, the Father Almighty, the Maker of heaven and earth, and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord: Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; He descended into hell. The third day He arose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy catholic church; the communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; and the life everlasting. Amen.
The “Three Jewels” of Buddhism Buddha – the teacher Dharma – the teachings Sangha – the community
Who was the Buddha? • Born Siddhartha Gautama – of noble caste in India, 563 B.C.E. • Raised in great luxury to be a king • Empathy for the suffering of others; at age 29 rejected the life of luxury to seek enlightenment and the solution to suffering • Followed a strict lifestyle for six years • Rejected this extreme, sat in meditation, achieved Nirvana – an awakening to the truth about life, becoming a Buddha, the “Awakened One”at the age of 35 • Spent the remaining 45 years of his life teaching others how to achieve the peace of mind he had achieved
What did the Buddha teach? The Four Noble Truths: • To live is to suffer • The cause of suffering is self-centered desire & attachments • The solution is to eliminate desire and attachment, thus achieving Nirvana (“extinction”) • The way to Nirvana is through the “Eight-Fold Path”
What is the Eight-Fold Path? • Wisdom: • Right understanding • Right motivation • Moral discipline: • Right speech • Right action • Right livelihood • Mental discipline: • Right effort • Right mindfulness • Right meditation
Schools of Buddhism - Mahayana The “Great Vehicle” • Developed first century C.E. • Found in Northern Asia (China, Japan, etc.) • Devotional – seek guidance from Bodhisattvas (“wise beings”) & heavenly Buddhas (kwan Yin, Amida, etc.) • Focus on compassion • Goal is to become a bodhisattva and assist others toward enlightenment (the “Bodhisattva Ideal”)
Buddhism in the West Over the past two centuries, especially since the later half of the 20th century, Buddhism has made inroads into the Western world through… • Immigration of Asian peoples who have brought their diverse forms of Buddhism to the West • Western followers who tend to adopt meditation practices and the philosophy rather than more devotional forms of Buddhism • Many such western followers remain within their own faith traditions, finding Buddhism to be a complement to rather than in conflict with other religions The two groups remain independent of one another
Islam • 1 billion + adherents • Originated in Saudi Arabia (Mecca and Medina) around AD 600. • Spread originally by Muslim armies to N. Africa, and the Near East.
Five Pillars of Faith • 1.) There is no god worthy of worship except the one God, the source of all creation, and Muhammad is the messenger of God • 2.) Prayer five times a day • 3.) A Muslim gives generously to charity • 4.) A Muslim fasts during the month of Ramadan, as an act of self-purification • 5.) If physically and financially able, a Muslim makes a pilgrimage to Mecca
Ethnic Religion • Appeals to people primarily in one group • 24 % of the world’s population • Hinduism • Judaism
Hinduism • 900 million + adherents primarily in India & Nepal • Hinduism is an ancient term for the complex and diverse set of religious beliefs practiced around the Indus River. (Pakistan)
Hinduism • Ancient practices • Reincarnation • Bathing in rivers • Ganges • Yoga • philosophy advocating and prescribing a course of physical and mental disciplines • Karma • Action seen as brining upon oneself inevitable results
Hinduism • Monotheistic • One god is Brahman (universal soul) and other gods in the religion are expressions of Brahman • 68% Vaishanavism~Vishnu, a loving god reincarnated as Krishna • 27% adhere to Sivaism, dedicated to Siva, a protective & destructive god • Shaktism, a form of worship dedicated to the female consorts
Hinduism • Not centrally organized • Karma & Reincarnation • All beings have living souls & are arranged in a hierarchy & the ideal is to escape reincarnation through union with Brahman • If you mistreat an animal in this life, you may be that animal in a future • Vegetarianism
Hinduism • Diffusion: began in the western part of India& moved to Southeast Asia; however, Islam & Christianity took over • Exception: Bali • Holy Places • Tirtha, a pilgrimage to a physical feature or shrine based on hierarchy • Ganges in the Himalayas because Siva lives there & it is made from Siva’s hair • Local mountain important to local population
Hinduism • Hindu Temples • Religion practices take place at home • Temples are built to house shrines to particular gods • Size and frequency depend on local preferences & resources • Maintained by local individuals
Other Religions • Sikhism is a combination of Hinduism & Islam • Jainism teaches that violence of any is wrong
Religious Beliefs • Traditional faiths are Buddhism, Daoism, & Confucianism • Daoism • Based on the teachings of Laozi 604-531 B.C. • Path to true happiness is living in a harmonious relationship with the natural world. The “right way” or Dao
Religious Beliefs • Confucianism, a philosophy based on a collection of teachings of Confucius, called Analects. • Confucius (551-479 B.C.) believed that society functioned best if everyone respected the laws & behaved according to his or her position. • Honor ancestors
Confucius • Everything has its beauty but not everyone sees it. • Forget injuries, never forget kindnesses. • I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. • It does not matter how slowly you go so long as you do not stop. • Respect yourself and others will respect you.
Judaism • Substantial role in Western culture • Jesus was a Jew & Muhammad traced his ancestry to Abraham • Canaan, Palestine, Jerusalem • Abraham (patriarch Judaism) traveled from Iraq along the Fertile Crescent to Canaan • Monotheism • “Chosen People” lived by the 10 Commandments
“The LORD had said to Abram, "Leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you. I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you."
Diffusion of Judaism • Diaspora, the scattering of the Jews to countries outside of Palestine by the Romans • North Africa & Asia • Adopted other cultural characteristics but retained their religion • European Jews, forced to live in ghettos, a neighborhood set up by law to only inhabit Jews • Holocaust 15% v. 90%
Autonomous Religions • Self-sufficient and interaction among communities is confined to little more than loose cooperation and shared ideas • Hinduism • Judaism • Islam • Protestant Denominations • Baptist & the United Church of Christ • Presbyterian • Presbytery & synod
Hierarchical Religions • Has a well defined geographic structure and organizes territory into local administrative units • Roman Catholic Church • Later Day Saints
Roman Catholic Church • Hierarchy • Density of Parishes • Western & Southern Europe Concentrated • Latin America Dispersed • U.S. Southwest & Large Urban Areas • Low density of parishes & dioceses compared to the population • New local administration needed and resources are scare • Population is dwindling in inner cities & rural areas • Maintaining services is expensive
Latter Day Saints • Mormons exercise strong organization of landscape • Utah • Wards -750 people • Stakes- 5,000 people • Board& President are constantly changing borders
Cosmogony in Ethnic Religions • Relationship with humans & nature • Cosmogony, a set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe • Ethnic Religions • Events in the physical environment • Confucianism & Daoism • Yin Force is associated with earth, darkness, female, cold, depth, passivity, & death • Yang Force, heaven, light, male, heat, height, activity, and light
Cosmogony in Ethnic Religions • Yin & Yang forces interact with each other to achieve balance & harmony, but they are in constant state of change. • Principle of yin & yang applies to the creation & transformation of all natural features.
Cosmogony in Universalizing Religions • Christianity & Islam, God created the universe • A religious person can serve God by cultivating the land & making productive use of the natural features • God is more powerful than the laws of nature
Cosmogony in Universalizing Religions • Christians • Believe the Earth was given by God to humanity to finish the task of creation. • Support large scale development • Natural disasters preventable • Punishment from God • Islam • Representatives of God • Reflecting the attributes of God in their deeds • Growing Food or Improving the Land • God alone is responsible for the Earth’s creation
The Calendar • Ethnic Religions • Ethnic religions are clustered because their holidays celebrate the physical environment • Celebration of seasons • Pray for favorable conditions or give thanks for past conditions
Jewish Calendar • Holidays based on events of the agricultural calendar in Israel • Autumn(time of hope and worry ) • Crops are planted • Rosh Hashanah (New Year) • Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement)
Jewish Holidays • Sukkot, celebrates the final gathering of fruits • Shelter that occupied the Jews as they were wondering in the wilderness • Passover, farmers offer God the 1st fruits of Spring • Liberation of Jews from Egypt • Shavuot(Feast of Weeks), comes at the end of grain harvest • Date Moses received the Ten Commandments
Jewish Calendar • Israel utilizes the Lunar Calendar • Moon has a mystical quality because it varies • “New Moon” marks a new month • Lunar month is 29 days/350 in a year • Adds an extra month 7/19 years
The Solstice • Either of two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator. The summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere occurs about June 21, when the sun is in the zenith at the tropic of Cancer; the winter solstice occurs about December 21, when the sun is over the tropic of Capricorn. The summer solstice is the longest day of the year and the winter solstice is the shortest
“Us vs. Them” • Fundamentalism -a process that is leading to increasingly large groups of people who claim there is only one way to interpret worship.