State of Kuwait Ministry of Education ELT General Supervision 2009 -2010. Educational Aims Goals & Objectives. M.Nagib & Molai A. Aziz. Aims. Goals. Objectives. How does each serve in the educational process ?. Aims.
State of Kuwait Ministry of Education ELT General Supervision 2009 -2010 Educational Aims Goals & Objectives M.Nagib & Molai A. Aziz
Aims Goals Objectives • How does each serve in the educational process ?
Aims • They are the final results aimed at in an educational process. • They are : • The most comprehensive and abstract. • Indicate the rational behind an educational program. • Constitute the frame work in an educational program. • Represent the philosophy adopted by educationalists in a society. • Derived from the society, learners and subject.
The General Aim of Education inKuwait To create suitable opportunities for the individuals to help them develop spiritually ,morally, mentallyand physically to the utmost of their readiness and abilities, according to the nature of Kuwaiti society ,its philosophy and ambitions ,and according to the principles of the Arab heritage and culture to participate in the progress of the Kuwaiti society , in particular ,and the Arab and international world in general.
Goals • These stand half way between aims , purposes and learning objectives. They are: • Less abstract and general • Describe the final educational outcome of a certain • stage and its curricula . • Represent the framework for teachers. New terminology ?
Reading Benchmarks ( Primary stage ) 1-Determine meaning for a variety of grade-level words related to topics taught 2-Use context clues to determine word meaning. 3-Recognize function of punctuation marks. ( . ? “ ” : ) 4-Make predictions from pictures and titles. 5-Derive meaning from picture clues. 6-Generate questions about the text. Task
Objectives • They are: • Phases that describe the performance of students after • a given lesson. • Direct and immediate. • Instructional ,observable, specific , and can be evaluated . • They are SMART • What does SMART stand for?
“ SMART Objectives” refers to an acronym built around the five leading measures of a strong program. This acronym can be very helpful in writing objects . Specific – What exactly are we going to do, with or for whom? The program states a specific outcome, or a precise objective to be accomplished. Measurable – Is it measurable & can WE measure it? This means that the objective can be measured and the measurement source is identified. Achievable – Can we get it done in the proposed timeframe/ Relevant – Will this objective lead to the desired results? Time-framed – When will this objective be accomplish? This means stating clearly when the objective will be achieved.
Why are learning objectives important? Stating behavioural objectives allows the teacher to: •Select appropriate teaching methods , skills and strategies. •Choose needed equipment and suitable materials. •Select an appropriate schedule for program presentation.
ELT general goals of teaching English: 1- Proficiency goals: - Promoting the four language skills. 2- Cognitive goals: - It comprises the mastery of linguistic knowledge. - It comprises the areas of intellectual abilities. 3- Affective goals: - It comprises achieving positive attitudes, values and principles. 4-Transfer goals: -Transferring is the carrying over of learnt behaviour from one learning situation to another.
Bloom divided the way people learn into three domains A) The Cognitive Domain This domain is concerned with the achievement of linguistic knowledge and mastery of cultural knowledge. Bloom categorized it into six levels from the simple recall or recognition of facts ,as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation.
Levels of the cognitive domain I am able to judge I can create my piece of work I can think and compare I can apply I can understand I know
Original Terms New Terms • Evaluation • Synthesis • Analysis • Application • Comprehension • Knowledge • Creating • Evaluating • Analyzing • Applying • Understanding • Remembering
Learning Objectives Pupils will be able to: Knowledge • Read a guide to eating places and list the healthiest and the least healthy menus . • Plan their own online guides and recommend healthy eating places for visitors . list synthesis Evaluation Plan recommend
3)Read a notice and discuss the pros and cons of a vegetarian menu and compare your answers with those of other pupils . • 4)Prepare their talk and report their ideas to their group or to the rest of the class. Comprehension discuss compare Analysis report Comprehension
Learning Objectives Pupils will be able to: Comprehension Discuss • Discuss the common uses of mobile phones . • Read an article about using mobile phones and compare their answers with those in the article. • Listen to three conversations and list the uses of mobiles which are mentioned . • Listen to the conversations again ,decide if the statements are true or false and justify their answers . Analysis compare list Knowledge Evaluation decide justify Evaluation
1. Create a stem. Stem Examples: • At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to… • After completing the lesson, the students will be able to… • After this unit, the students will have … • By completing the activities, the students will …
2. After you create the stem,add an action verb: • Classify • Compose • Construct • Decode • Define • Demonstrate • Describe • Diagram • Distinguish • Estimate • Evaluate • Identify • Interpret • Label • List • Locate • Measure • Name • Order • Reproduce • Solve • State (a rule) • Translate • use, • identify, • compare, • provide, • list, • re-tell, etc.
3. Once you have a stem and a verb,determine the actual product, process, or outcome: At the end of this lesson, students will be able to re-tell the story in their own words.
To define your lesson's objectives, consider the following questions: • Does the objective define a learning outcome? • Will it help YOU to decide whether the pupils have learned anything at the end of the lesson? • Is it something that you will be able tosee, hear or read?
4. What will students accomplish during this lesson? 5. To what specific level (i.e. 75% accuracy) will the students perform a given task in order for the lesson to be considered satisfactorily accomplished?
6. Exactly how will the students show that they understood and learned the goals of your lesson? Will this occur through a worksheet, group work, presentation, illustration, etc?
Follow these rules when writing instructional objectives: 1.Be Concise: at the most, objectives should be one or two sentences in length. 2. Be Singular: An objective should focus on one and only one aspect of behavior. 3. Describe Expected behaviors: An objective should indicate the desired end product, not merely a direction of change or a teacher activity. 4. Be Realistic: An objective should focus on observable behavior, not on teacher illusions or indefinable traits. 5. Use Definite Terms (VERBS!!!): Terms such as "write, define, list and compare" have definite meanings, whereas terms such as "know, understand, and apply" have a multitude of meanings.
B • The Proficiency Domain (Psychomotor) • This domain is demonstrated by physical skills ,coordination, manipulation • ,grace, strength ,speed; actions which demonstrate the psychomotorskills as • the use of the body in a dance or athletic. Verbs applicable to the psychomotor • domain include: • Bend • Grasp • Handle • Operate • Reach • Shorten • Stretch • Write • Differentiate (by touch) • Express (facially) • Perform (skillfully)
Verbs used in proficiency domain Write , perform , role-play , express, create, mime design, interpret. , trace , arrange ,compose , find , recognize
C The Affective Domain This domain is demonstrated by behaviors indicating attitudes of awareness ,interest ,attention , concern , and responsibility. Ability to listen and respond in interactions with others ,and ability to demonstrate those attitudes ,characteristics or values ,which are appropriate to the test situation and the field of study.This domain relates to emotions ,attitudes ,appreciation ,and values, such as enjoying respecting , and supporting.
verbs applicable to the affective domain Joins , judges , defends , praises, questions , shares, supports , challenges, and volunteers , shows , value
D The Transfer Domain In this domain we are concerned with achieving positive attitudes and feeling, developing self confidence and appreciation of values and beliefs. Verbs applicable to Transfer domain Appreciate, develop a sense of belonging to , be willing to , respect , be aware , show interest in.
Task • Which of the following lesson objectives seem inadequate? Why ? • Can you improve them?
X Revising the present simple tense. √To be able to use the simple present tense in the positive and negative forms . Begin each objective with an action verb which depicts definite, observable behavior and describes what the learner will be doing.
To present the vocabulary. X √To use new vocabulary in meaningful sentences. State each objective in terms of student performance rather than teacher performance.
To listen, read, and role-play.. X √To listen for gist. To read for detailed information To role-play “a dialogue” State only one outcome or behavior in each objective.
X To read words from lesson 8 and classify them into categories. √To classify words into categories Make objectives clear , brief and unambiguous. .
X “ to learn new vocabulary” • This objective is written from the students' perspective, which is good. However, it is far too vague. • What vocabulary? How much? For what purpose? Will there be any practice? If so, what type? There's nothing wrong in having a vocabulary lesson, but it needs to have focus.
A better objective would be: • “For students to learn the meaning, form and pronunciation of ten words about television and to have practice using them in a written gap-fill and a free-speaking activity”
Task Start a set of behavioral objectives for a lesson with the following phrase: “ At the end of the lesson pupils are expected to…”
Categorize the following objectives according to the four domains discussed; C= cognitive domainP= proficiency domain A= Affective domainT=Transfer domain Task C A P P C P A T A P