Writing Instructional Objectives Guidelines for Effective Lesson Planning
Instructional Goals • Before beginning to write your instructional objective(s), consider the larger educational goal to which the objective leads.
Instructional Goals • There are certain expectations that people have for individuals who have completed twelve years of school.
Instructional Goals • We expect high school graduates to be able to solve problems
Instructional Goals • And to critically evaluate issues and make decisions.
Instructional Goals • Students do not achieve these goals at one grade level or in one class.
Instructional Goals • One teacher cannot be responsible for students achieving these goals.
Instructional Goals • A team of teachers is required.
Instructional Goals • Begin by identifying the part of the goal to be achieved in the lesson you are teaching.
Standards • The state standards are a good place to start.
Task Analysis • Writing instructional objectives for a complex goal such as problem-solving or critical thinking requires completion of a task analysis.
Consider this educational goal. Students will be able to write a complete sentence . Task Analysis
Task Analysis • What must a student be able to do to complete this task?
Task Analysis • Students will be able to write a complete sentence. • Students are able to distinguish parts of speech. • Students are able to distinguish subject and predicate. • Students are able to distinguish a complete thought.
Task Analysis • Students will be able to write a complete sentence. • Students are able to distinguish a clause. • Students are able to distinguish a subordinate clause. • Students are able to distinguish a phrase from a clause.
Task Analysis: Determining Student Abilities • After the task analysis is complete, you need to determine which tasks students have already mastered and which they continue to need work. This is often referred to as formative evaluation or formative assessment.
Writing Instructional Objectives • Think about what a student who achieved the objective would look like.
A student who can write a complete sentence can … Distinguish a complete thought Distinguish a subordinate clause Distinguish a phrase from a clause Express a complete thought in a sentence that includes a subordinate clause Writing Instructional Objectives
Writing Instructional Objectives • Now think about what the weakest students in your class can do.
Writing Instructional Objectives • Now you should have an idea of the learning tasks to establish for your students.
Writing Instructional Objectives • The sample of tasks you select should reflect the level at which students are operating in the cognitive, psychomotor, and/or affective domains.
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge • Knowledge • Recalls the names of the parts of speech • States the definition of ‘noun’ and ‘verb’
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension • Comprehension • Identifies subordinate clauses in a sentence • States the difference between a clause and a phrase in his/her own words
Cognitive Domain: Application • Application • Writes a sentence with a subordinate clause
Cognitive Domain: Analysis • Analysis • Identifies errors in a set of sentences and corrects those errors.
Cognitive Domain: Synthesis • Synthesis • States reasons for requiring a subordinate clause to be included within a complete sentence
Cognitive Domain: Evaluation • Evaluation • Critiques a set of communications for their ability to communicate clearly.
Writing Instructional Objectives • As you write instructional objectives, you should remember the following :
Guidelines for Instructional Objectives • Instructional objectives guide the use of instructional activities
Guidelines for Instructional Objectives • Instructional objectives guide the selection of instructional resources – • Not Vice Versa
Guidelines for Instructional Objectives • Instructional objectives focus on learning outcomes for students, • NOT actions by the teacher
Instructional objectives are aimed at general learning outcomes. General learning outcome: Students are able to use grid lines on a map to find locations. Guidelines for Instructional Objectives
They are not specific to a given set of resources Learning outcome specific to a set of resources: Students are able to use the grid lines on a map of Wisconsin to find Birchwood. Guidelines for Instructional Objectives
Instructional objectives are stated in terms of observable student outcomes. “Students will understand the law of supply and demand.” is not a statement of an observable outcome. “ Guidelines for Instructional Objectives
Guidelines for Instructional Objectives • Students will use the law of supply and demand to explain the pricing of consumer products.” • is a statement of an observable outcome – • Students can be asked to provide an explanation of the pricing of a consumer product.
Guidelines for Instructional Objectives • If you are going to use a broad instructional objective such as “understands,” then provide sub-objectives that describe what a student who “understands” looks like.
Guidelines for Instructional Objectives • Example: • Understands the requirements for a complete sentence • States the rule for writing a complete sentence • Identifies examples of complete and incomplete sentences • Identifies statements that express a complete thought • Writes complete sentences
Guidelines for Instructional Objectives • Instructional objectives determine assessment and evaluation.
Which of these two statements is more appropriate as an instructional objective? Students will be shown the steps for solving a word problem. Students will identify the steps in solving a word problem. Choosing Appropriate Instructional Objectives
Choosing Appropriate Instructional Objectives • The first statement identifies what the teacher will do, not what the learning outcomes for students will be. • Therefore, the second statement is the more appropriate statement of an instructional objective.
Choosing Appropriate Instructional Objectives • Your unit examination requires students to pick out groups of words that express a complete thought. • Which of the following is an appropriate instructional objective for the unit?
A) Students will be able to write a complete sentence. B) Students will be able to identify statements that express a complete thought. Choosing Appropriate Instructional Objectives
Choosing Appropriate Instructional Objectives • B is the appropriate instructional objective for the examination item identified. Statement A requires a different level of development and a different form of evaluation.
Instructional Objectives Summary • Start the process of determining instructional objectives by reviewing the subject area standards for the grade level you are teaching. • Identify the standard your lesson is focused upon.
Writing Instructional ObjectivesSummary • If the standard involves learning a complex concept, generalization, or skill, complete a task analysis. • Identify the steps in the task the lesson will address.
Writing Instructional Objectives Summary • The statement of an objective should reflect an appropriate level in the cognitive, affective, or psychomotor domain. • The statement identifies learning outcomes for students and not actions by the teacher
Writing Instructional ObjectivesSummary • The statement guides the selection of instructional resources and activities. • The statement determines the assessment or evaluation that will be used.
Writing Instructional ObjectivesConclusion • Instructional objectives guide the remaining steps in planning a lesson. • No lesson can be effective without effective instructional objectives – • A lesson without effective objectives is like a trip without a destination,
Writing Instructional ObjectivesConclusion • You don’t know where you are going • You have no means to determine how to get there • And, you don’t know when you have arrived