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Chapter 17-1 pg 512. One American’s Story (PG. 512). Who is speaking? What is the main idea? When did this take place? Where did this take place? Why is this story relevant?. Web from Chapter 17-1 Reading Study Guide. Wealth redistribution (Socialism). WCTU/ Carry Nation/ Prohibition.

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one american s story pg 512
One American’s Story (PG. 512)
  • Who is speaking?
  • What is the main idea?
  • When did this take place?
  • Where did this take place?
  • Why is this story relevant?
web from chapter 17 1 reading study guide
Web from Chapter 17-1 Reading Study Guide

Wealth redistribution (Socialism)

WCTU/ Carry Nation/ Prohibition

Progressive Reforms

City managers instead of political boss in charge of the city (Galveston, TX)

YMCA/ Salvation Army/ Factory Inspection Act/ Florence Kelly

change in class format
Change in class format

1. You won’t get a outline sheet for each unit

2. The units will be broken up into smaller chunks

Example Unit 7 (7.1 chpts. 17&18; 7.2 chpts. 19, 20, 21)

3. I’ll give you LEQ cards for each unit…write your answers to the questions on the back of each card.

4. You’ll have to complete the RSG for each chapter in the unit

5. You’ll have to complete the workbook pages during the PowerPoint lectures

6. Vocabulary will be in the form of crossword puzzles, and the Section B in your workbook pages

terms you ll need to know
Terms you’ll need to know…
  • Progressive movement
  • Florence Kelley
  • Prohibition
  • Muckraker
  • Scientific management
  • Robert M. La Follette
  • Initiative
  • Referendum
  • Recall
  • Seventeenth Amendment
four goals of progressivism
Four Goals of Progressivism
  • The Progressive Movement aimed to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life at the turn of the century.
    • Promote social welfare
    • Promote moral improvement
    • Create economic reform
    • Fostering efficiency in govt
  • Many social reformers focused on the deplorable conditions in factories
    • Young Men’s Christian Asso. (YMCA) opened in many communities
    • The Salvation Army helped the poor get food/ aid
  • Florence Kelley advocated improving the lives of women/ children—she was appointed factory inspector in Illinois
promoting moral improvement
Promoting Moral Improvement
  • Many people felt that the govt should enforce moral behavior onto the public
  • Prohibition (banning alcohol) became one such program
  • The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) spearheaded this movement
    • WCTU members would go into saloons and sing, pray, and begging bartenders to stop selling alcohol.
    • Having 245,000 members by 1911, the WCTU was the largest woman’s group in history
slide8
Carry Nation would go into saloons, scold the customers, and use her hatchet to destroy bottles of liquor
creating economic reform
Creating Economic Reform
  • Many people in the US favored socialism as a way to “equalize” the wealth gap
  • Reformer Eugene V. Debs helped organize the Socialist Party in 1901—socialist felt capitalism was unfair, b/c govt favored big business over common people
  • Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life were known as muckrakers
muckrakers
Muckrakers
  • McClure’s Magazine was a monthly publication that focused on exposing the injustices done by people like Rockefeller, Carnegie, and J.P. Morgan
fostering efficiency
Fostering Efficiency
  • Frederick Winslow Taylor invented “Taylorism”, aka Scientific Management
  • He figured out exactly how long it should take for an employee to perform a specific task
  • Henry Ford reduced the workweek to 8 hours, and increased pay to $5 per/day to keep people happy
reforming local govt
Reforming local govt
  • Many local govts were corrupt---political bosses would rewarded supporters w/ jobs, money, and openly bought votes w/ favors and bribes
  • A hurricane destroyed the city of Galveston, TX in 1900; the politicians really botched up the effort to rebuild the city, so the TX legislature took charge.
  • They appointed a 5 member commission of experts to take charge of a different city department—the city was rebuilt quickly, which convinced many cites to adopt the Galveston example
  • City managers were soon employed in nearly 250 cities by 1925
  • Many city mayors were also striving to make their cities the best they possibly could
reform at the state level
Reform at the State level

Reform Governors

  • Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin led the way in regulating big business
  • He targeted the RR industry—taxed their property, regulated rates, cut out free rail passes for govt, etc.
reform at the state level1
Reform at the State level

Child Labor

  • Child labor cont to be a large part of the factory system
  • Nat’l Child Labor Cmt. sent investigators into factories, org. exhibitions about the horrors of child labor
  • Succeeded in getting legislation passed in most states limiting child labor
work hours elections
Work Hours Elections
  • Courts set a 10-hour workday for women in 1908 (Muller v. Oregon)
  • Courts set a 10-hour work week for men in 1917 (Bunting v. Oregon)
  • Employees were made to compensate families after a worker dies as a result of the job
  • Citizens could place an initiative —a bill originated by the people rather than lawmakers —on a ballot
  • Then, the voters, NOT the legislators, would vote on the initiative called a referendum
  • The recall enabled voters to remove public officials by forcing them into another election before their scheduled time
the 17 th amendment
The 17th Amendment
  • Prior to this amendment, each state’s legislature would choose its own US senators, which put more power in the hands of corrupt political bosses.
  • The 17th Amendment was ratified in 1913, which allowed for the direct election of US senators
one american s story pg 519
One American’s Story (PG 519)
  • Who is speaking?
  • What is the main idea?
  • When did this take place?
  • Where did this take place?
  • Why is this story relevant?
terms you ll need to know1
Terms You’ll Need to Know…
  • NACW
  • Suffrage
  • Susan B. Anthony
  • NAWSA
let s review the last section
Let’s Review the last section…

Wealth redistribution (Socialism)

WCTU/ Carry Nation/ Prohibition

Progressive Reforms

City managers instead of political boss in charge of the city (Galveston, TX)

YMCA/ Salvation Army/ Factory Inspection Act/ Florence Kelly

slide21

In a chart like this one below, fill in details about working women in the late 1800s. What generalizations can you make about women at this time?

women in the workforce
Women in the Workforce
  • Wealthy women could afford to stay at home and take care of their families—middle class/ poor had no choice but to find employment outside the home
  • Farm women have always been an essential part of family life: plowing, raising livestock, harvesting, etc
  • Once factorization took place, many women found jobs in the cities, even though they were not allowed to be a part of men’s labor unions
  • Women were employed in many garment factories, as well as telephone operators, maids, cooks, typists
women lead reform
Women Lead Reform
  • Dangerous conditions, low wages, and long hours caused some women to push for reform
  • The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911, where nearly 146 women died in NYC, sparked many to seek help
  • Vassar College, Smith and Wellesley Colleges, as well as Columbia, Brown, and Harvard Colleges began offering classes for women—new opportunities
women and reform
Women and Reform
  • 1896: NACW- National Association of Colored Women—whose mission was to advance African American women; targeted reform in housing, education, and food/ drug laws
  • The Seneca Falls (Stanton/ Mott) was in 1848—many women were split over the 14th(born in US= automatic citizen) and 15th(nobody could denied suffrage based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude) Amendments, which granted equal rights to African Americans, but excluded women
  • Susan B. Anthony was a leading proponent of women suffrage
  • Anthony and Stanton created the National American Woman Suffrage Asso. (NAWSA) —the liquor industry feared if they voted, then prohibition would soon follow
three part plan for suffrage
Three-Part plan for Suffrage
  • 1: Try and convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote (Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Idaho)
  • 2: Test the constitutionality of the 14th Amendment (Can not deny citizens the right to vote)—Anthony led women to try and vote 150 times, the case went to court—the women asked “Aren’t we citizens?”, they court said “yes”, but not in the case of voting
  • 3: Push for a national convention centered around passing an amendment to grant women’s suffrage
one american s story pg 523
One American’s Story (PG 523)
  • Who is speaking?
  • What is the main idea?
  • When did this take place?
  • Where did this take place?
  • Why is this story relevant?
terms you ll need to know2
Terms You’ll Need to Know…
  • Upton Sinclair
  • The Jungle
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Square Deal
  • Meat Inspection Act
  • Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Conservation
  • NAACP
list the solutions that tr used to solve the four problems below
List the solutions that TR used to solve the four problems below.

1902 Coal Strike

Unsafe Meat Processing

Exploitation of the Environment

Racial Injustice

a rough riding president
A Rough-Riding President
  • In 1900, New York political bosses (remember Tweed) urged NY senator/ Governor Teddy Roosevelt to run as McKinley’s VP—he was brash, and they didn’t know what to do w/ him
  • The plot to remove him from NY state government (and thus, out of the hair of the political machine of NYC) worked, and Roosevelt became the VP of McKinley, who served only 6 months of his second term before he was assassinated, making Roosevelt the POTUS!
young life of tr
Young Life of TR
  • He was born to a wealthy NY family
  • He was an outstanding athlete (shooting, horseback riding, boxing, wrestling)
tr enters politics
TR enters politics…
  • Great leader in NY politics;
  • NYC police commissioner
  • Asst. sec. to the Navy
  • Once he established himself as a political leader, he decided to go fight in Cuba…
rough riders in cuba
Rough-Riders in Cuba
  • He advocated war against Spain in 1898
  • His all-volunteer cavalry brigade (the Rough Riders) fought bravely against Spain in Cuba at the Battle of San Juan Hill
  • Upon his return, he was elected Governor of NY, and then nominated for VP under McKinley
slide34
TR
  • He became the youngest president in 1901 at 42 yrs old
  • He boxed in the white house, galloped 100 miles in a day
  • He was bold in politics as well— he believed that the natl govt should assume responsibility when states prove incapable of doing so w/ regard to welfare
two things he s known for
Two Things he’s known for…

The Bully Pulpit

The Square Deal

  • He felt he could “bully” his programs through congress by influencing the news media to shape legislation
  • If big business victimized its workers, TR would see to it that the workers received a “Square Deal”
  • It’s the name of all of the social programs TR will sponsor
using the federal power
Using the Federal Power

TRUSTBUSTING

  • By 1900, trusts controlled about 4/5 of the industries of the US—some like Standard Oil earned a bad reputation of unfair business practices (running companies out of business only to raise prices once they’ve attained monopolies)
  • Under the Sherman Act, Roosevelt ordered the Justice Dept to sue the Northern Securities Comp, which had a monopoly over the NW RR—the Supreme Ct dissolved the company, earning TR the nickname “Trustbuster”
1902 railroad strike
1902 Railroad Strike
  • 140,000 coal minders in PN went on strike for a 20% pay raise, 9 hr workday, and the right to organize
  • The mine operators refused to bargain, and the 5 month strike caused coal reserves to run very low
  • Roosevelt decided to step in and settle the dispute by claiming if they couldn’t resolve it themselves, then he would have the US govt take over the business
  • An arbitration commission worked out a compromise
  • Roosevelt’s actions set a new precedent—when a strike threatened the public welfare, the federal govt would intervene
railroad regulation
Railroad Regulation
  • Roosevelt wanted the entire RR industry to be regulated by the federal govt
  • Previously in 1887, Congress had passed the Interstate Commerce Act, and est. the Interstate Commerce Commission to enforce the RR—they were not very effective
  • So, Roosevelt urged Congress to pass the Elkins Act in 1903, which made it illegal for RR to give rebates to companies for using a specific RR company, and they couldn't change their price w/o notifying the public
  • The Hepburn Act (1906) strictly limited the distribution of free RR passes—the most common form of bribery. It also gave the ICC the right to est. maximum RR rates
    • Review Question: Who was the Progressive Wisconsin Governor who first started regulating the RR industry?
health and the environment
Health and the Environment
  • After reading Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, Roosevelt responded to the public’s cries for action.
  • In 1906 Roosevelt pushed Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act, which dictated strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers and created the program of federal meat inspection that was used until 1990
health and the environment1
Health and the Environment
  • Roosevelt continued to protect the health of Americans by getting congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Before, manufacturers could say anything about their products just to get them sold—they also put harmful ingredients in them
  • The FDA now regulated such claims and labels
conservation and natl resources
Conservation and Natl Resources
  • By the late 19th Century, Americans had unknowingly exploited their natural resources/ environment
  • Farmers had clear-cut forests, plowed up prairies, cities dumped sewage in rivers, etc, etc, etc….
conservation
Conservation
  • Roosevelt established hundreds of millions of acres for National Parks
  • He hired Gifford Pinchot as head of the US Forest Service
  • To them, conservation meant some land would be preserved, and some would be used for the common good
roosevelt and civil rights
Roosevelt and Civil Rights
  • Roosevelt did not focus too strongly on civil rights
  • He invited Booker T. Washington (head of Tuskegee Institute) to the white house for dinner
  • In 1905 African Americans held a civil rights conference at Niagara Falls
  • In 1909, the NAACP (Natl Asso for the Advancement of Colored People) was established
one american s story pg 534
One American’s Story (PG 534)
  • Who is speaking?
  • What is the main idea?
  • When did this take place?
  • Where did this take place?
  • Why is this story relevant?
terms you ll need to know3
Terms You’ll Need to Know…
  • Gifford Pinchot
  • William Howard Taft
  • Payne-Aldrich Tariff
  • Bull Moose Party
  • Woodrow Wilson
draw this diagram in your notes fill in the causes that made taft s time in office difficult
Draw this diagram in your notes; fill in the causes that made Taft’s time in office difficult.
taft becomes president
Taft Becomes President
  • Roosevelt pledged that he would not run for president in 1908—he handpicked his secretary of war—William Howard Taft—as the Republican Party nominee
  • Taft would run against the Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan (his 3rd time running!)
  • Taft easily won the election
taft as president
Taft as president
  • Taft never really felt like the President—he was very cautious, and never used TR’s bully pulpit style of governing
  • Tariffs and Conservation will be his two biggest problems
the issue of tariffs
The Issue of Tariffs…
  • As a Progressive, Taft disliked tariffs b/c it put undue taxes on the people
  • However, as president, he signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff, which increased tariffs on goods imported into the US
  • Many Progressives felt that Taft has abandoned his principles
disputing public lands
Disputing Public Lands
  • Taft then got into more trouble when he appointed Richard Ballinger as his secretary of the interior
  • Ballinger disapproved of conversationalists controlling western lands, and sold off 1 million acres to public domain from the reserved list
  • When Pinchot (TR’s appointment) criticized Taft’s actions, Taft fired him from the U.S. Forest Service
the republican party splits
The Republican Party Splits
  • The Republican Party had two sects within it: Progressives and Conversationalists---Taft was too weak to hold the party together
  • Both groups were upset w/ Taft’s support of political boss Joseph “Uncle Joe” Cannon—who was brash and in charge of the House rules committee, which is the committee in charge of deciding which bills Congress will consider.
  • By 1910, the Republican Party was in shambles, which caused the Democrats to gain control of the House for the first time in 18 years
the bull moose party
The Bull Moose Party
  • After leaving office in 1908, Roosevelt traveled to Africa to hunt big game on a safari
  • Upon returning to the US, he proposed “New Nationalism” where the govt will help out the people (as he did when he was POTUS)
  • Roosevelt decided to run for a 3rd time in 1912, but he failed to get the Republican Party nomination at the convention
  • So, the Progressives decided to run Roosevelt as a third party candidate under the party name “Bull Moose”
the election of 1912
The Election of 1912
  • Republican: Taft (Incumbent)- 8 Electoral Votes
  • Bull Moose: Roosevelt- 88 Electoral Votes
  • Democrat: Woodrow Wilson- 435 Electoral Votes
  • Socialist: Eugene V. Debs- 0 Electoral Votes
  • Because Roosevelt and Taft split the Republican/ Progressive vote, Woodrow Wilson (Gov. of New Jersey) was able to win the election with 42% of the popular vote
one american s story pg 538
One American’s Story (PG 538)
  • Who is speaking?
  • What is the main idea?
  • When did this take place?
  • Where did this take place?
  • Why is this story relevant?
terms you ll need to know4
Terms You’ll Need to Know…
  • Carrie Chapman Catt
  • Clayton Antitrust Act
  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
  • Federal Reserve System
  • Nineteenth Amendment
write down key events that occurred in each year below relating to progressivism
Write down key events that occurred in each year below relating to Progressivism.

1913 1914 1915 1916

wilson wins financial reforms
Wilson Wins Financial Reforms
  • Like Roosevelt, Wilson attacked large concentrations of power to give greater freedom to average citizens…is that Progressive?
  • Wilson grew up in the South during the Civil War—he was a lawyer, history professor, president of Princeton University, and Governor of New Jersey
  • He was a progressive governor—he supported direct primary elections, workers’ compensation, and regulation of public utilities and railroads
  • As president, Wilson’s plan for America was known as the “New Freedom”. Do you remember what Roosevelt’s plan was called???
    • The Square Deal!
two key antitrust measures
Two Key Antitrust Measures

Clayton Antitrust Act

  • Enacted in 1914, it strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
  • It prohibited a company from purchasing stocks of another company if it would result in a monopoly
  • It allowed unions and farm organizations to strike, picket, and boycott much easier
  • Samuel Gompers of the AFL called this Act the “Magna Carter” for labor b/c it gave workers so much power

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

  • This agency was the “watchdog” for the govt
  • It had the power to investigate any company it suspected of wrongdoing
  • Under Wilson’s admin; the FTC ordered over 400 cease-and-desist orders
creating a federal income tax
Creating a federal income tax…
  • Wilson wanted to get rid of tariffs b/c of the undue stress it placed on consumers, and the advantage it gave big business
  • To replace the revenue lost by the tariffs, Wilson urged Congress to create a system to tax American’s incomes
  • The Sixteenth Amendment was passed in 1913, which placed a graduated tax (larger incomes were taxed at higher rates)
the federal reserve act
The Federal Reserve Act
  • Wilson turned his attention to financial reform
  • He created the Federal Reserve Act in 1913, which divided the nation into 12 districts and est. a regional central back in each district
  • These were created as “bankers banks”
  • The federal reserve banks could issue new paper money in emergency situations—member banks could use the new money to make loans to their customers
  • Nearly 70% of US banks were part of the Federal Reserve System
women win suffrage
Women Win Suffrage
  • Women suffragists were winning battles in states to promote the idea of female voting rights
  • College educated women headed up the movement all across the nation to generate support
  • Emmeline Pankhurst was the leader of Britain's suffrage movement
  • Carrie Chapman Catt became president of the NAWSA (Natl American Woman Suffrage Asso) during Wilson’s administration.
nineteenth amendment
Nineteenth Amendment
  • Due to the efforts of the millions of women suffragists across the globe, and women efforts during WWI, it was inevitable that woman suffrage would be granted
  • The Nineteenth Amendment was passed in 1919
the limits of progressivism
The Limits of Progressivism
  • Wilson disappointed Progressives by placing segregationists in charge of federal agencies, which further expanded segregation in govt and military agencies
  • Wilson was never known for his efforts with minorities in the US
slide69

When running for office, Wilson promised NAACP he would work to equalize racial injustices, but once in office.

  • However, when in office, he opposed limiting lynching laws, citing that they fell under “state” jurisdiction.
wilson and civil rights
Wilson and Civil Rights
  • NAACP felt betrayed by Wilson’s inaction
  • Bitterness soon evolved b/t the president and African-American leaders
  • Soon, international conflict (WWI) will dominate Wilson’s second term as president---the Progressive Era has officially ended.