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Chapter 1 Section 2 Pg. 9. Skill Building: Using the Geographer ’ s Tools. Organizing the Globe. Globe – scale model of earth Useful for looking at the whole planet or large areas of its land and water surfaces. The pattern of lines makes a grid.

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Chapter 1 section 2 pg 9

Chapter 1 Section 2 Pg. 9

Skill Building: Using the Geographer’s Tools

Organizing the globe
Organizing the Globe

  • Globe – scale model of earth

  • Useful for looking at the whole planet or large areas of its land and water surfaces.

  • The pattern of lines makes a grid.

  • Latitude – drawn in an east-west direction.

  • Longitude – north south direction.


  • Latitude measure the distance north and south of the equator. Lines of latitude are also called parallels.

  • Lines of longitude are called meridians. Measure east and west of the prime meridian.

  • Both measured in degrees, degrees are further divided into minutes. 60 minutes in a degree.

Hemispheres continents oceans
Hemispheres, Continents, Oceans

  • The equator divided the earth into hemispheres.

  • Prime Meridian and 180 meridian divide the world into Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

  • Also organized into 7 continents. Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America.

  • Asia is the larges and Australia is the smallest.

  • Greenland is the world’s largest island.

Making maps
Making Maps

  • Maps are flat representations of all or part of Earth’s surface.

  • A collection of maps in one book is called an atlas.

  • Different ways of representing the round earth on a flat map. These are called map projections. True sized of continents and bodies of water are not shown on all maps.

Map projections
Map Projections

  • Cylindrical projections – are designed like a cylinder has been wrapped around the globe. A mercator map is an example of this. Helps navigators because it shows true direction and shape. Landmasses at high latitudes are exaggerated in size.

  • Conic Projections – are designed as if a cone has been placed over the globe. Accurate where the lines of latitude where it touches the globe.

  • Flat-plane globes – touch the globe at one point. Shows true direction for planes and ships.

Great circle route
Great Circle Route

  • Drawing a straight line on a flat map will not show the shortest route between two places.

  • Shortest route between two places on the planet is called a great circle route.

Understanding map elements
Understanding Map Elements

  • Scale – the size of an area and the level of detail that is shown. Maps show large or small areas.

Distance scales
Distance Scales

  • Shows the real distance between two places on a map.

Directional indicators
Directional Indicators

  • Shows which direction on a map is north south east or west.

  • Called a compass rose.


  • Identifies the symbols on a map and what they represent.

Climate graphs and population pyramids
Climate graphs and population pyramids

  • Climate graphs show the average temperatures and precipitation in one graph.

  • Along the left side of the climate graph is a range of temperatures. Right side is an average amount of precipitation.

  • A population pyramid – shows the average amount of males and females by age group in a country’s population.