Self, Social, & Moral Development. Identity Development Theorists Erik Erikson. Identity Development Theorists James Marcia. Stages of Identity Development Identity diffusion : not much thought given to identity
Stages of Identity Development
Identity diffusion : not much thought given to identity
Identity foreclosure : firm adherence to particular ideas about identity
still little exploration / not open to other perspectives
Identity moratorium : time & thought purposefully given to identity considerations
Identity achievement : informed commitment to a particular identity configuration
Life Story Model
Individuals living in modern societies provide their lives with unity and purpose by constructing evolving narratives of the self.
Practice Theory of Identity Development
Many contemporary theories of identity
development are grounded in the beliefs that
identities are constructed, fluid, and multiple,
(not necessarily unidirectional & reciprocal),
and that they are situated (and therefore shaped by – and shape in response) the contexts in which they are formed. In a popular contemporary model of identity development Dorothy Holland and her co-authors highlight the important and reciprocal interplay between a personally held perspective on one’s own identity and one’s context (Holland, Lachicotte, Skinner, & Cain, 1998). According to these theorists, identity is a construction, a consequence of interaction between people, institutions, and practices.
Making room for student identities in class
Children and adolescents bring important cultural resources from their home & community experiences. It is the job of schools to understand those resources & their application to the demands of school based learning. We must consider design learning environments so that differences between community-based & school-based norms can be negotiated by students and teachers.
Lee, C. (2007). Culture, Literacy, and Learning. New York: Teachers’ College Press.
Blending cultural (lived) and academic sources of knowledge can allow youth to stay connected with their communities & their cultural identities, AND achieve at school.
Hatt, B. (2007). Street smarts vs. book smarts: The figured world of smartness in the lives of marginalized, urban youth. The Urban Review, 39(2), 145-166.
Self Concept: Picture of yourself
Self-esteem: Opinion of yourself
Multiple concepts of self
Supporting development of self-esteem
Safe-to-Fail environment that values all students
Know yourself & your biases
Be intellectually honest
Set clear goals for teacher & student
Value cultural diversity in your student
Peer groups (crowds)
Peers are the “glue” that adheres students to the educational enterprise. Ladd (quoted in Hymel, et al., 1996; p. 318)
Positive peer relationships coincide with student adjustment,
positive affect toward school (liking school) engagement & involvement (Furrer & Skinner, 2003; Kindermann, 1993; Ryan, 2001; Wentzel, 1997)
Poor peer relationships coincide with : low self esteem,
mental health problems
Noticed that females often scored a full stage below male counterparts.
Either: females are less morally developed than males or
something is wrong with Kohlberg’s framework.
Responses from females did not fit in Kohlberg’s framework
The moral reasoning of women and girls valued preserving connections.
Noted that Kohlberg focuses on thought NOT actual behavior.
Most children & adults express the belief that it is wrong
to let someone else suffer –
but only a small subsetwill get involved.
Focus not just what the person thinks is the right course,
but what they will actually do.
Saw a problem with Character Education as a support for Moral Development
(A collection of exhortations & extrinsic inducements designed to
make children work harder, behave well & do what they are told
is not the same thing as moral Development. )
2 problems with this:
1. Research does not support the effectiveness of such lessons
2. Good behavior (docility) is mistaken for good character.
If our goal was to help children become active participants in democratic society…
we should engage students in deep, critical reflection, & discussion about
justice, caring, equity…& opportunities to get involved!!
Model moral and pro-social behavior and
expose students to role models
Encourage, acknowledge and reward prosocial behavior
Encourage perspective taking, empathy,
and pro-social behavior
Discuss reasons why some behaviors are inappropriate
Engage students in discussions of moral issues
Conflict Resolution & Behavior Management
Cooperative discipline (Linda Albert)
emphasizes analyzing the reason for misconduct
The Six-D’s of Conflict Resolution
Step 1: Define the problem objectively.
(focus on the behavior not the individual,
agree on an account of the problem without blaming)
Step 2: Describe the feelings.
(use I-messages, practice active listening)
Step 3: Declare the need.
(practice active listening, reframe problem)
Step 4: Discuss solutions..
(don’t criticize ideas, remain calm and open-minded,
consider several solutions to the problem)
Step 5: Decide on a plan.
(eliminate weak solutions together, choose the solution
with the most pros from both points of view)
Step 6: Determine the plan’s effectiveness.
(meet with student(s) to evaluate)
Dealing With Bullying
Bullying = Negative, mean behavior, that occurs repeatedly,
in a relationship that is characterized by an imbalance of power.
Elementary school – more overt
Middle & High school – more covert
IN THE U.S. Weekly: 8% - 20% bullied
Annually: 24% - 45% bullied
Across the school years: up to 75% of students are bullied
Factors that encourage bullying…
Schools where adults are largely unaware or do not take action
Schools where peers to not take action
Many effective anti-bullying programs focus on students
actively working to develop a school culture that resists