nas 125 meteorology n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
NAS 125: Meteorology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
NAS 125: Meteorology

play fullscreen
1 / 60
Download Presentation

NAS 125: Meteorology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

tyra
55 Views
Download Presentation

NAS 125: Meteorology

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. NAS 125: Meteorology Heat, Temperature,and Atmospheric Circulation

  2. Importance of weather • More than 70 percent of U.S. businesses are sensitive to temperature and other weather variables. • Heating and cooling costs • Transportation expenses • Agriculture and forestry • Recreation industry • Employee health and safety (not a priority for some) Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  3. Insurance and derivatives • Businesses buy insurance to protect themselves against losses from high-risk, low probability events (hurricanes, floods, etc.). • They buy weather derivatives to protect themselves against losses from low-risk, high probability events (mild winter for ski resorts, for example). • Weather derivatives are a recent innovation in business. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  4. Derivative example • Snowshoe wants to protect itself from losses due to a mild winter. • It purchases weather derivates from a seller (DS). • Snowshoe and DS agree that contract should be based on heating degree-days such that, if the number of heating degree-days is less than an agreed-upon threshold value, DS pays Snowshoe an amount to make up for the losses Snowshoe has incurred as a result of the unfavorable skiing weather. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  5. Temperature and landscape • Long-run temperature conditions affect the organic and inorganic components of the landscape. • Animals and plants often evolve in response to hot or cold climates. • Soil development is affected by temperature, with repeated fluctuations in temperature being the primary cause of breakdown of exposed bedrock. • Human-built landscape is created in response to temperature considerations. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  6. Kinetic energy • Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. • Heat is the total quantity of kinetic energy in a substance. • Temperature is the average amount of kinetic energy in a substance. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  7. Measuring heat • Kinetic energy often measured in calories (cal), the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 °C • The joule (J) is another way to measure kinetic energy. • 1 cal = 4.187 J; 1 J = 0.239 cal. • The British Thermal Unit (BTU) is the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 °F (from 62°F to 63°F). • 1 BTU = 252 cal = 1055 J Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  8. Measuring temperature, part 1 • There are a number of instruments for measuring temperature. All work on the principle that most substances expand when heated, calibrating this change in volume to measure temperature. • There are three temperature scales used in the United States: the Fahrenheit Scale, the Celsius Scale, and the Kelvin Scale. • The Fahrenheit scale is used by public weather reports from the National Weather Service and the news media; few other countries than United States use it. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  9. Measuring temperature, part 2 • Three temperature scales (continued): • The Celsius scale is used either exclusively or predominately in most countries other than United States, which uses it for scientific work. It is slowly being established to supersede the Fahrenheit scale. • 0 °C = 32 °F • 100 °C = 212 °F • The Kelvin scale is used in scientific research, but not by climatologists and meteorologists. It is similar to the Celsius scale, but the zero point is set to absolute zero, the temperature at which all molecular motion ceases. • 0 K = -273.15 °C = -459.67 °F Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  10. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  11. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  12. Measuring temperature, part 3 • Temperature data is recorded throughout the world at thousands of locations, following specific rules for providing accurate and important raw material for weather reports and long-run climatic analyses. • Official temperatures must be taken in shade so measure air temperature, not solar radiation. • Official thermometers are usually mounted in an instrument shelter that shields them from sunshine and precipitation while providing air circulation. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  13. Measuring temperature, part 4 • Recording temperature data (continued): • Thermographs are often used to continuously record temperature. • The highest and lowest temperatures are recorded for each 24-hour period. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  14. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  15. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  16. Heating and cooling • To understand how energy travels from the Sun to Earth, it’s best to examine how heat energy moves. • Heat energy moves from one place to another in three ways: • Radiation • Conduction • Convection Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  17. Radiation, part 1 • Radiation is the process by which electromagnetic energy emits from an object; radiant energy flows out of all bodies, with temperature and nature of the surface of the objects playing a key role in radiation effectiveness. • Hot bodies are more potent than cool bodies (and the hotter the object, the more intense the radiation and the shorter the wavelength). • A blackbody is a body that emits the maximum amount of radiation possible, at every wavelength, for its temperature. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  18. Radiation, part 2 • If the amount of radiation absorbed is greater than that emitted, the temperature of the object will rise, this is radiational heating. • If the amount of radiation emitted is greater than that absorbed, the temperature of the object will fall, this is radiational cooling. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  19. Conduction, part 1 • Conduction is the movement of energy from one molecule to another without changes in the relative positions of the molecules. It enables the transfer of heat between different parts of a stationary body, or from one object to a second object when the two are in contact. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  20. Conduction, part 2 • Conduction does require molecular movement, however. Although the molecules do not move from their relative positions, they do become increasingly agitated as heat is added. • An agitated molecule will move and collide against a cooler, calmer molecule, and through this collision transfer the heat energy. Thus, heat energy is passed from one place to another, without the molecules actually moving from one place to another, just vibrating back and forth from agitation. (Thus, it’s the opposite of convection.) Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  21. Conduction, part 3 • Conduction ability varies with the makeup of the objects. • Heat conductivity is the ratio of the rate of heat transport across an area to a temperature gradient. • Metals are excellent conductors in comparison to earthy materials like ceramics or gases. • Solids >> liquids >> gases • Snow is a poor conductor (conversely, a good insulator) because of air trapped between snowflakes. • Differences in heat conductivity can make some objects (good conductors) feel cooler than others (poor conductors). Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  22. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  23. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  24. Convection • Convection is the transfer of heat within a fluid by motions of the fluid itself. • Convection is essentially the opposite of conduction. • Molecules actually move from one place to another, rather than just vibrating from agitation. • The principal action in convection is vertical, with less dense fluids rising and more dense fluids sinking. • Advection is when a convecting liquid or gas moves horizontally as opposed to vertically as in convection. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  25. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  26. Water • Water occurs in all three states of matter: • Solid (snow, sleet, hail, ice); • Liquid (rain, water droplets); • and Gas (water vapor). • The gaseous state is the most important in driving the dynamics of the atmosphere. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  27. Latent heat, part 1 • Latent heat is the energy stored or released when a substance changes state; it can result in temperature changes in atmosphere. • Changes of state: • Evaporation is when liquid water converts to gaseous water vapor; it is a cooling process because latent heat is stored. • Condensation is when gaseous water vapor condenses to liquid water; it is a warming process because latent heat is released. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  28. Latent heat, part 2 • Changes of state (continued): • Freezing is when liquid water converts to solid water (ice); it is a warming process because latent heat is released. • Sublimation is when ice converts to gaseous water vapor; it is a cooling process because latent heat is stored. • Latent heating refers to the transport of heat from one location to another as a result of the changes of state of water. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  29. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  30. Specific heat • Specific heat is the amount of energy it takes to raise or lower the temperature of 1 g of a substance 1 degree C. • The specific heat of water is 1 cal/g/degree C. • Water changes its temperature less than most other substances when it absorbs or radiates a given amount of energy. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  31. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  32. Water and climate • Water’s thermodynamic properties explain why maritime climates have more moderate temperature ranges than arid climates, and why sweating is so important to cooling the body. • Water stabilizes air temperatures by absorbing heat from warmer air and releasing heat to cooler air. • Water can absorb or release relatively large amounts of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  33. Land-water interactions • Since land and water differ in their response to solar heating, climates can be classified according to a region’s proximity to water. • Continental climates occur in areas far from large bodies of water (such as oceans and seas). They are characterized by large temperature extremes. • Maritime climates occur near large bodies of water, thus have reduced climate fluctuations. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  34. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  35. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  36. Radiation budget, part 1 • The global and annual average energy budget (for every 100 units incoming solar radiation): • 31 units scattered and reflected to space • 20 units absorbed by the atmosphere • 49 units absorbed at the Earth’s surface • 100 units total • At the Earth’s surface • 19 units lost due to infrared cooling • 49 units gained by solar heating • 30 units net heating Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  37. Radiation budget, part 2 • The atmosphere • 50 units lost due to infrared cooling • 20 units gained by solar heating • 30 units net cooling • Heat transfer from Earth’s surface to atmosphere • 7 units sensible heating (conduction plus convection) • 23 units latent heating • 30 units net transfer Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  38. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  39. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  40. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  41. Phase changes • Tremendous amounts of energy are involved in phase changes of water. • Latent heat of melting: 80 cal are required to convert 1 g of frozen water to liquid water at the freezing/melting point • Temperature remains at 0 °C until all ice melts • Latent heat of vaporization: varies, depending on initial temperature of water • 600 cal required to evaporate 1 g of liquid water at 0 °C • 540 cal required to evaporate 1 g of liquid water at 100 °C • Latent heat of sublimation: equals sum of latent heat of melting plus latent heat of vaporization • 680 cal required to evaporate 1 g of frozen water at 0 °C Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  42. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  43. Sensible heating, part 1 • Heat transfer by conduction and convection can be measured (sensed) by temperature changes. • Sensible heating incorporates both conduction and convection. • Heating reduces the density of air, causing it to rise above cooler, denser air. • Convection thus transports heat from surface to troposphere • Convection is more important than conduction because air is a poor conductor of heat. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  44. Sensible heating, part 2 • Sensible and latent heating often work together. • As air cools by convection, the water vapor in the air condenses, thus releasing its latent heat as sensible heat – and leading to the formation of cumulus clouds. • The latent heat released by water vapor is converted into sensible heat in the air. This in turn can lead to stronger updrafts, as is seen in cumulonimbus clouds. • By these processes, heat can also be transferred from the atmosphere to the surface, such as on cold nights when radiational cooling causes the surface to have a lower temperature than the air above. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  45. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  46. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  47. Bowen ratio • The Bowen ratio describes how heat energy received at the Earth is partitioned into sensible and latent heat. • Bowen ration = [(sensible heating)/(latent heating)] • Globally • Bowen ratio = [(7 units)/(23 units)] = 0.3 • The Bowen ratio varies considerably by region and surface type. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  48. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  49. Latitudinal differences, part 1 • There is unequal heating of different latitudinal zones for four basic reasons, angle of incidence, day length, atmospheric obstruction, and latitudinal radiation balance: • The angle of incidence is the angle at which rays from the Sun strike Earth’s surface; always changes because Earth is a sphere and Earth rotates on own axis and revolves around the Sun. • Angle of incidence is the primary determinant of the intensity of solar radiation received on Earth. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation

  50. Latitudinal differences, part 2 • The angle of incidence (continued). • Heating is more effective the closer to 90°, because the more perpendicular the ray, the smaller the surface area being heated by a given amount of insolation. • Angle is 90° if Sun is directly overhead. • Angle is less than 90° if ray is striking surface at a glance. • Angle is 0° for a ray striking Earth at either pole. Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation