Medieval Period. 1066-1485 Battle of Hastings to the Battle of Bosworth Field PowerPoint found at: schs.kana.k12.wv.us/meadowsc/ MedievalPeriod .ppt. Characteristics of the Medieval Period. Medieval Period was based on feudalism.
Battle of Hastings to the Battle of Bosworth Field
PowerPoint found at: schs.kana.k12.wv.us/meadowsc/MedievalPeriod.ppt
Feudalism was a hierarchy based on the least powerful swearing allegiance and loyalty to the person in power above him. It began with the serfs and ended with the king and the Pope
William led the Normans against the Anglo Saxons at the Battle of Hastings. He won and brought a new language and methods of organization to England
Called one of the most influential battles of all time, the Battle of Hastings brought the Normans to England to replace
Often called Doomsday Book– William the Conquerer had everyone’s personal property catalogued so he could tax it
For almost 200 years Western Europe under direction from the Popes attempted to “recapture” the Holy Lands, especially Jerusalem
Called the Black Death– estimates say that 10 to fifty percent of Europeans died of the black death. So many people died that there was a shortage of labor which eventually helped to bring about the middle class.
Famous Muslim leader who opposed the Christians during the Crusades
Archbishop of Canterbury who was murdered by the knights of Henry II. Canterbury Cathedral honors this English martyr. He also was the martyr celebrated in the Canterbury Tales
Son of Maude (Matilda) Henry II inherited the throne after Stephen. Although he is best known as the monarch who caused the death of Thomas a Beckett he ruled an extensive empire, restored order, triumphed over the nobility and fought the Church. He also restored royal justice, the beginning of the modern trial by jury. In short, he brought efficiency and a degree of fairness to government
Henry wanted to do away with the concept of “benefit of clergy” or immunity from the king’s justice. Any wrongdoer who could read Latin could claim to be a cleric. Also Henry wanted to nominate his own bishops
First labor unions made up of skilled craftsmen. Guilds are the beginning of the middle class.
Chivalry was a code of conduct based on the process of becoming a knight. Adherence to oaths of allegiance and rules governing fighting were basic to its precepts
Legendary hero of Scotland (Braveheart) he fought against Edward I and the English take-over of Scotland. The Scottish lairds were jealous of his popularity and power and betrayed him to Edward. Although he was executed, his spirit influenced the Scots to continue fighting against England.
War between France and England– England claimed the throne of France based on Edward III and Henry V. The British yeoman now represented England and these small landowners became a dominant force in a new society
More than 1500 KNIGHTS and NOBLEMEN were killed because of the English longbow
Most famous figure of the 100 Years’War, Joan of Arc was a peasant girl who led the French forces against the English– since the French king was too inept. She claimed that God talked to her, and she was militarily successful for two years until she was captured in Burgundy and sold to the English. The English considered her a “hot potato” so they gave her to an ecclesiastical court which accused her of witchcraft and eventually burned her at the stake. She became canonized as a saint in the 20th century
Roland was a French hero who drove the Moors out of France and back to Northern Africa. The Song of Roland is considered to be the French national epic
A morality play to teach a lesson to its viewers. It’s about a character named Everyman who confronts Death and has to find which of his friends will go with him.
Author of the Devine Comedy which is comprised of The Inferno, Purgatorio and Paradisio.
Written by Boccaccio, the Decameron 1350’s is a set of tales principally about love and the corruption of the clergy. The Decameron is said to have been an influence on Chaucer
A tale about Arthur’s knights and the Round Table, Sir Gawain accepts the Green Knights challenge to exchange blows. The story might really be about redemption and sin.
Canterbury Tales was written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer who is often called the father of English poetry. He is credited with making English respectable. Until Chaucer most literature and documents of importance were done in Latin
Orginally dervied from a French word which meant dancing song, ballads were composed with music in mind with their rhythm and meter. Ballads are poetry of the people and their topics are ones of everyday life– lost love, death, betrayal, the supernatural and relationships
Henry I died without a son to succeed him. Before his death he had made all of his nobles swear allegiance to his daughter Maude. However, when he died his nephew Stephen grabbed the throne
Maude, aka Matilde, battled over the throne for almost 19 years. Stephen claimed that a woman shouldn’t rule. The battle raged until Stephen’s only son died, leaving him with no heir. Through treaty Stephen agreed that Matilda’s son (Henry II) would inherit the throne after Stephen’s death
Lancaster Henry of Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt, seized the throne of England from his cousin Richard II. Richard futilely attempted to save his life by “abdicating.” Accounts vary, but apparently Richard starved to death in a dungeon. Henry then became Henry IV, but descendants from the Yorkist side of the family (who had a better claim to the title) objected– for the next three generations
The Lancasters kept the throne through the reigns of Henry IV and Henry V, but during the reign of Henry VI the Yorks realized that they had an opportunity to depose a weak king. Yorkist Edward IV, along with help from his brother Richard, captured and killed Henry VI and took over the throne of England
Much to the disgust of everyone Edward IV married Elizabeth Woodville, a member of a much disliked family. When Edward died his children Edward V and Richard were taken by their uncle Richard (soon to be Richard III) to the Tower of London– for safety sake
The boys turned up missing, and Richard proclaimed himself king. Edward IV’s daughter Elizabeth negotiated with Henry Tudor ( a descendant of John of Gaunt) to oppose her uncle, defeat him in battle, and subsequently marry her and become king.
Henry Tudor and his allies challenge Richard III and his reluctant allies at Bosworth Field. Richard is killed at the Battle and the ruling house of Plantagenet changes to Tudor, the Medieval Period ends, and the Renaissance is ushered in