3 Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions. Learning Objectives. Describe the nature of work values and ethical values and why they are of critical importance in organizations Understand why it is important to understand employees’ moods and emotions on the job
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Learning Objectives • Describe the nature of work values and ethical values and why they are of critical importance in organizations • Understand why it is important to understand employees’ moods and emotions on the job • Appreciate when and why emotional labor occurs in organizations
Learning Objectives • Describe the nature, causes, theories, and consequences of job satisfaction • Appreciate the distinction between affective commitment and continuance commitment and their implications for understanding organizational behavior
Opening Case: Richard Branson Is Never Bored • How can an old-economy company transform itself, prosper, and be good to its employees? • Bill Greehy, CEO of Valero Energy. • “..the more you do for your employees, the more they do for shareholders and the more they do for the community.”
The Nature of Values Values are one’s personal convictions about what one should strive for in life and how one should behave Work Values Ethical Values
Values Work Values Ethical Values Intrinsic Work Values Extrinsic Work Values Justice Values Utilitarian Values Moral Rights Values Exhibit 3.1 Values in the Workplace
Intrinsic Values Interesting work Challenging work Learning new things Making important contributions Responsibility and autonomy Being creative Extrinsic Values High pay Job security Job benefits Status in wider community Social contacts Time with family Time for hobbies A Comparison of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Values
Code of Ethics A code of ethics is a set of formal rules and standards, based on ethical values and beliefs about what is right and wrong, that employees can use to make appropriate decisions when the interests of other individuals or groups are at stake • Whistleblowers
Work Attitudes Work attitudes are collections of feelings, beliefs, and thoughts about how to behave that people currently hold about their jobs and organizations Job Satisfaction Organizational Commitment
Exhibit 3.3 Components of Work Attitudes Affective Component Cognitive Component Work Attitudes Behavioral Component
Work Moods • How people feel at the time they actually perform their jobs • More transitory than values and attitudes • Determining factors: • Personality • Work situation • Circumstances outside of work
Positive Excited Enthusiastic Active Strong Peppy Elated Negative Distressed Fearful Scornful Hostile Jittery Nervous Work Moods
Emotions • Intense, short-lived feelings that are linked to specific cause or antecedent • Emotions can feed into moods • Emotional labor
Emotional Labor Display Rules Feeling Rules Expression Rules
Exhibit 3.4 Values, Attitudes, Moods, and Emotions Values (most stable) Attitudes (moderately stable) Moods and Emotions (most changing)
Personality Work Situation Job Satisfaction Values Social Influence Exhibit 3.5 Determinants of Job Satisfaction
Determinants of Job Satisfaction_1 • Personality • Extraverts tend to have higher levels of job satisfaction than introverts • Values • A person with strong intrinsic work values is more likely than one with weak intrinsic work values to be satisfied with a job that is meaningful but requires long hours and offers poor pay
Determinants of Job Satisfaction_2 • Work Situation • tasks a person performs • people a jobholder interacts with • surroundings in which a person works • the way the organization treats the jobholder
Determinants of Job Satisfaction_3 • Social influence is the influence that individuals or groups have on a person’s attitudes and behavior • Coworkers • Family • Other reference groups (unions, religious groups, friends) • Culture
Theories of Job Satisfaction • The Facet Model • Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory • The Discrepancy Model • The Steady-State Theory
Ability utilization Achievement Activity Advancement Authority Company policies Compensation Coworkers Creativity Independence Moral values Recognition Responsibility Security Social service Social status Variety Working conditions The Facet Model
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory of Job Satisfaction • Focuses on the effects of certain types of job facets • Everyone has two sets of needs or requirements Motivator Needs Hygiene Needs
Motivator and Hygiene Needs • When motivator needs are met, workers will be satisfied; when these needs are not met, workers will not be satisfied. • When hygiene needs are met, workers will not be dissatisfied; when these needs are not met, workers will be dissatisfied.
The Discrepancy Model of Job Satisfaction • To determine how satisfied they are with their jobs, workers compare their job to some “ideal job.” This “ideal job” could be • What one thinks the job should be like • What one expected the job to be like • What one wants from a job • What one’s former job was like • Can be used in combination with the Facet Model.
Determining Satisfaction with the Discrepancy and Facet Models • A) How much (enter job facet) do you currently have at your job? • B) How much (enter job facet) do you think your job should have? • The difference between A and B indicates the level of satisfaction with that facet • The differences are summed for an overall satisfaction score
The Steady-State Theory of Job Satisfaction • Each worker has a typical or characteristic level of job satisfaction, called the steady state or equilibrium level. • Different situational factors or events at work may move a worker temporarily from this steady state, but the worker will eventually return to his or her equilibrium level.
Consequences of Job (Dis)Satisfaction Performance Absenteeism Turnover
Motivation to attend work is affected by Job satisfaction Organization’s absence policy Other factors Ability to attend work is affected by Illness and accidents Transportation problems Family responsibilities Exhibit 3.10 Determinants of Absence from Work
Consequences of Job Satisfaction Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Employee Well-Being
Organizational Commitment • Feelings and beliefs about the employing organization as a whole • Affective commitment • Continuance commitment • Affective commitment is more positive for organizations than continuance commitment