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EMOTIONS & MOODS. THE MYTH OF RATIONALITY AT WORK Keep a damper on emotions at work because they are “irrational” Emotions of any kind are disruptive…not constructive Create an “emotion-free” organization AFFECT A broad range of feelings that people experience.

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emotions moods
EMOTIONS & MOODS

THE MYTH OF RATIONALITY AT WORK

Keep a damper on emotions at work because they are “irrational”

Emotions of any kind are disruptive…not constructive

Create an “emotion-free” organization

AFFECT

A broad range of feelings that people experience.

Affect can be experienced in the form of emotions or moods.

EMOTIONS

Intense feelings directed toward someone or something

MOODS

Less intense feelings that lack a specific cause or stimulus

emotions moods defined
EMOTIONS & MOODS DEFINED

EMOTIONS

Caused by a specific event

Very brief in duration (seconds or minutes)

Usually very specific…anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, etc.

Usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions (visual cues)

Action-oriented (plan to do something)

MOODS

Cause is often general and unclear

Last longer than emotions (hours or days)

More general (either positive affect or negative affect)

Generally not indicated by distinct expressions

Cognitive in nature (thinking or brooding)

basic emotions
BASIC EMOTIONS

UNIVERSAL EMOTIONSR. DESCARTES

“Six simple and primitive passions”

WONDER, LOVE, HATRED, DESIRE, JOY, SADNESS

THE EMOTIONAL CONTINUUM

HAPPINESS – SURPRISE – FEAR – SADNESS – ANGER – DISGUST

BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF EMOTIONS

LIMBIC SYSTEM … when active, you see things in a negative light

Inactive limbic system = experience positive emotions (happiness, joy)

Active limbic system = negative emotions dominate (anger, guilt)

When you encounter negative information…how do you react to it?

sources of emotions moods
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS & MOODS

1. PERSONALITY

PERSONALITY PREDISPOSES US TO CERTAIN MOODS & EMOTIONS

SOME PEOPLE FEEL ANGER AND GUILT MORE READILY THAN OTHERS

OTHERS FEEL CALM AND RELAXED NO MATTER WHAT THE SITUATION

BOBBY KNIGHT v. BILL GATES

High “AFFECT INTENSITY”

CRIES EASILY

LAUGHS UNCONTROLLABLY

GETS MAD AND ANGRY

DO YOU LET YOUR FEELINGS “SHOW?” -- EXTRAVERTS

HIDE MY EMOTIONS -- INTROVERTS

sources of emotions moods 2
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS & MOODS - 2

2. TIME OF DAY AND WEEK

WEEKLY CYCLE

NEGATIVE MOODS

– HIGHEST ON SUNDAYS & MONDAYS (BEGINNING OF THE WEEK)

POSITIVE MOODS

-- HIGHEST AT THE END OF THE WEEK (THURSDAY – SATURDAY)

DAILY CYCLE

People are generally in lower spirits in the morning.

During the day, our moods improve and then decline in the evening.

There is really no significant difference between “morning” or “evening” persons…the daily rise-and-fall pattern is the same for both groups.

sources of emotions moods 3
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS & MOODS - 3

3. THE WEATHER

DO WE HAVE MORE POSITIVE MOODS ON BRIGHT, SUNNY DAYS THAN RAINY ONES?

CONTRARY TO POPULAR BELIEF - MOOD AND THE WEATHER ARE NOT RELATED

4. STRESS

Stressful daily events negatively affect employees’ moods.

The effects of stress are cumulative…even if the stress isn’t severe.

Constant, prolonged exposure to stress leads to depression and negative feelings.

5. SOCIAL INTERACTION

Social activities increase positive mood and have little effect on negative mood

PHYSICAL, INFORMAL, EPICUREAN – Activities strongly associated with positive mood.

FORMAL MEETINGS, SEDENTARY ACTIVITIES – not as likely to generate positive moods

SOCIAL INTERACTIONS HAVE LONG-TERM HEALTH BENEFITS – people live longer!

BE HAPPY --- AND BE HEALTHY!

sources of emotions moods 4
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS & MOODS - 4

6. SLEEP

SLEEP QUALITY AFFECTS MOOD (75% not getting enough sleep)

SLEEP-DEPRIVED WORKERS

– greater feelings of fatigue, anger, and hostility…impaired decision-making & alertness

7. EXERCISE

Exercise modestly enhances people’s positive mood…most pronounced for depressed people.

8. AGE

YOUNG PEOPLE DO NOT EXPERIENCE MORE POSITIVE MOODS THAN OLDER PEOPLE

NEGATIVE EMOTIONS SEEM TO OCCUR LESS AS PEOPLE GET OLDER

“Emotional Experience” tends to improve with age – as we age, we feel fewer negative emotions.

sources of emotions moods 5
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS & MOODS - 5

9. GENDER

CONTRASTED WITH MEN, WOMEN ARE…

MORE IN TOUCH WITH THEIR FEELINGS

SHOW GREATER EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION

EXPERIENCE EMOTIONS MORE INTENSELY

MORE LIKELY TO DISPLAY POSITIVE & NEGATIVE EMOTIONS (except anger)

ARE BETTER AT READING NONVERBAL CUES

CAUSES OF THIS?

THE DIFFERENT WAYS MEN AND WOMEN HAVE BEEN SOCIALIZED IN SOCIETY

MEN EXPECTED TO BE TOUGH, BRAVE, DON’T CRY, ETC.

WOMEN EXPECTED TO BE NURTURING, WARM, AND FRIENDLY (Smile?)

WOMEN JUST HAVE A BETTER ABILITY TO READ OTHERS & PRESENT THEIR EMOTIONS THAN MEN

WOMEN MAY HAVE A GREATER NEED FOR SOCIAL APPROVAL & A HIGHER PROPENSITY TO DISPLAY POSITIVE EMOTIONS, SUCH AS HAPPINESS.

external contstraints on emotions
EXTERNAL CONTSTRAINTS ON EMOTIONS

1. ORGANIZATIONAL EXPECTATIONS

JOB REQUIREMENTS

DISNEY -- LEARN TO SMILE…AND ACT HAPPY!

DOCTORS & AIR-TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS – NEVER SHOW EMOTIONS & GET EXCITED

EVANGELISTS, SPORTS ANNOUNCERS, LAWYERS – SHOW EMOTIONS T/B EFFECTIVE

THE CUSTOMER IS ALWAYS RIGHT – EVEN IF THEY’RE RUDE, IGNORANT, AND DEMANDING

LEARN TO PROJECT ONE EMOTION WHILE FEELING ANOTHER (…put on a “Happy Face”)

(Emotional Dissonance) Felt emotions v. Displayed emotions

SURFACE ACTING ... Deals with DISPLAYED emotions (…VERY STRESSFUL ON THE PERSON)

DEEP ACTING … Deals with FELT emotions

2. CULTURAL INFLUENCES

Americans value enthusiasm

Chinese consider negative emotions ro be useful and constructive

Norms for expressing emotions differ across cultural groups

Americans – smiling is a sign of friendliness – viewed positively

Muslins - smiling is a sign of sexual attraction…so women don’t smile at men

Japanese - smiling indicates a lack of intelligence (…an ignorant airhead!)

French – make no effort to hide their personal feelings about customers

emotional intelligence
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

People who know their own emotions and are good at reading others’ feelings.

Managers high in EI seem to be better managers

FIVE DIMENSIONS

Self-awareness

Being aware of what you’re feeling

Self-management

The ability to manage your own emotions and impulses

Self-motivation

The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures

Empathy

The ability to sense how others are feeling

Social Skills

The ability to handle the emotions of others

pros cons of emotional intelligence
PROS & CONS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

STRENGTHS

INTUITIVE APPEAL

- being street smart and socially intelligent makes sense

IT PREDICTS JOB PERFORMANCE

- correlations found are significant N=59

IT’S BIOLOGICALLY BASED

- it’s neurological and affects decision-making

CAUTIONS

IT’S TOO VAGUE/TOO BROAD

- no one is sure what this concept is…

- is it intelligence? …self-discipline? …empathy? …or self-awareness?

IT ISN’T MEASURED CONSISTENTLY

- we haven’t used good methodology

IS IT VALID?

- it’s so closely related to personality and intelligence

- when you control for these factors, there isn’t anything left that’s unique

how managers might use emotions and moods 1
HOW MANAGERS MIGHT USE EMOTIONS AND MOODS - 1

SELECTION

Air Force - hires with high EI scores …2.6 times more successful, lower turnover

L’Oreal – salespersons with high EI scores outsold traditionally-hired salespeople

DECISION-MAKING

Negative mood persons made more accurate decisions , but…

Depressed people make poorer decisions than happy people

Positive mood people are more likely to use heuristics or “rules of thumb” and

less likely to explore all possible options, etc.

CREATIVITY

Positive mood people are more creative than negative mood people

- more flexible and open in their thinking

But, positive moods may allow people to relax & not engage in critical thinking

MOTIVATION

Giving people feedback about performance affects mood, which impacts motivation

how managers might use emotions and moods 2
HOW MANAGERS MIGHT USE EMOTIONS AND MOODS - 2

LEADERSHIP

Effective leaders rely on emotional appeals to help convey their messages

When they become excited & enthusiastic, it energizes their subordinates

By arousing emotions and linking them to an appealing vision – getting the workers to accept change is more likely

NEGOTIATION

Negotiators who feign anger have an advantage over their opponent, because the opponent concludes that no more concessions are likely (short-term effect) .

However, poor performance as a negotiator will lead to negative feelings which will impact future relationships (longer-term relationships)

CUSTOMER SERVICE

High quality service often puts workers into an “emotionally dissonant” position

which leads to stress, lower job satisfaction, and burnout.

When employees are cranky and out of sorts, it has a negative impact on customers.

But, positive worker attitudes can also be “caught” by customers (emotional contagion) …leading to higher sales and greater loyalty to the company.

how managers might use emotions and moods 3
HOW MANAGERS MIGHT USE EMOTIONS AND MOODS - 3

CONFLICT

Successfully resolving conflicts between coworkers will involve emotions.

The manager must try to get the parties to work through the emotional elements in the conflict…you can’t ignore emotions and only look at the rational and task concerns.

JOB ATTITUDES

People who had a good day at work tend to be in a better mood when they go home.

People who had a stressful day have a hard time relaxing at home in the evening.

DEVIANT WORK BEHAVIOR

Negative emotions can lead to a number of deviant work behaviors which harm or threaten the organization and its members.

Envy and resentment lead to hostile acts and behaviors.

how can managers influence moods
HOW CAN MANAGERS INFLUENCE MOODS?

IMPROVE MOODS BY *

SHOWING A FUNNY VIDEO CLIP

GIVING WORKERS A SMALL BAG OF CANDY

HAVE THEM TASTE A PLEASANT BEVERAGE

USE HUMOR IN THE WORKPLACE

GIVE SMALL TOKENS OF APPRECIATION

SELECT POSITIVE TEAM MEMBERS (Contagion effect)

* These techniques seem to work best with the millenial generation