EMOTIONS & MOODS. THE MYTH OF RATIONALITY AT WORK Keep a damper on emotions at work because they are “irrational” Emotions of any kind are disruptive…not constructive Create an “emotion-free” organization AFFECT A broad range of feelings that people experience.
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THE MYTH OF RATIONALITY AT WORK
Keep a damper on emotions at work because they are “irrational”
Emotions of any kind are disruptive…not constructive
Create an “emotion-free” organization
A broad range of feelings that people experience.
Affect can be experienced in the form of emotions or moods.
Intense feelings directed toward someone or something
Less intense feelings that lack a specific cause or stimulus
Caused by a specific event
Very brief in duration (seconds or minutes)
Usually very specific…anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, etc.
Usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions (visual cues)
Action-oriented (plan to do something)
Cause is often general and unclear
Last longer than emotions (hours or days)
More general (either positive affect or negative affect)
Generally not indicated by distinct expressions
Cognitive in nature (thinking or brooding)
UNIVERSAL EMOTIONSR. DESCARTES
“Six simple and primitive passions”
WONDER, LOVE, HATRED, DESIRE, JOY, SADNESS
THE EMOTIONAL CONTINUUM
HAPPINESS – SURPRISE – FEAR – SADNESS – ANGER – DISGUST
BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF EMOTIONS
LIMBIC SYSTEM … when active, you see things in a negative light
Inactive limbic system = experience positive emotions (happiness, joy)
Active limbic system = negative emotions dominate (anger, guilt)
When you encounter negative information…how do you react to it?
PERSONALITY PREDISPOSES US TO CERTAIN MOODS & EMOTIONS
SOME PEOPLE FEEL ANGER AND GUILT MORE READILY THAN OTHERS
OTHERS FEEL CALM AND RELAXED NO MATTER WHAT THE SITUATION
BOBBY KNIGHT v. BILL GATES
High “AFFECT INTENSITY”
GETS MAD AND ANGRY
DO YOU LET YOUR FEELINGS “SHOW?” -- EXTRAVERTS
HIDE MY EMOTIONS -- INTROVERTS
2. TIME OF DAY AND WEEK
– HIGHEST ON SUNDAYS & MONDAYS (BEGINNING OF THE WEEK)
-- HIGHEST AT THE END OF THE WEEK (THURSDAY – SATURDAY)
People are generally in lower spirits in the morning.
During the day, our moods improve and then decline in the evening.
There is really no significant difference between “morning” or “evening” persons…the daily rise-and-fall pattern is the same for both groups.
3. THE WEATHER
DO WE HAVE MORE POSITIVE MOODS ON BRIGHT, SUNNY DAYS THAN RAINY ONES?
CONTRARY TO POPULAR BELIEF - MOOD AND THE WEATHER ARE NOT RELATED
Stressful daily events negatively affect employees’ moods.
The effects of stress are cumulative…even if the stress isn’t severe.
Constant, prolonged exposure to stress leads to depression and negative feelings.
5. SOCIAL INTERACTION
Social activities increase positive mood and have little effect on negative mood
PHYSICAL, INFORMAL, EPICUREAN – Activities strongly associated with positive mood.
FORMAL MEETINGS, SEDENTARY ACTIVITIES – not as likely to generate positive moods
SOCIAL INTERACTIONS HAVE LONG-TERM HEALTH BENEFITS – people live longer!
BE HAPPY --- AND BE HEALTHY!
SLEEP QUALITY AFFECTS MOOD (75% not getting enough sleep)
– greater feelings of fatigue, anger, and hostility…impaired decision-making & alertness
Exercise modestly enhances people’s positive mood…most pronounced for depressed people.
YOUNG PEOPLE DO NOT EXPERIENCE MORE POSITIVE MOODS THAN OLDER PEOPLE
NEGATIVE EMOTIONS SEEM TO OCCUR LESS AS PEOPLE GET OLDER
“Emotional Experience” tends to improve with age – as we age, we feel fewer negative emotions.
CONTRASTED WITH MEN, WOMEN ARE…
MORE IN TOUCH WITH THEIR FEELINGS
SHOW GREATER EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION
EXPERIENCE EMOTIONS MORE INTENSELY
MORE LIKELY TO DISPLAY POSITIVE & NEGATIVE EMOTIONS (except anger)
ARE BETTER AT READING NONVERBAL CUES
CAUSES OF THIS?
THE DIFFERENT WAYS MEN AND WOMEN HAVE BEEN SOCIALIZED IN SOCIETY
MEN EXPECTED TO BE TOUGH, BRAVE, DON’T CRY, ETC.
WOMEN EXPECTED TO BE NURTURING, WARM, AND FRIENDLY (Smile?)
WOMEN JUST HAVE A BETTER ABILITY TO READ OTHERS & PRESENT THEIR EMOTIONS THAN MEN
WOMEN MAY HAVE A GREATER NEED FOR SOCIAL APPROVAL & A HIGHER PROPENSITY TO DISPLAY POSITIVE EMOTIONS, SUCH AS HAPPINESS.
1. ORGANIZATIONAL EXPECTATIONS
DISNEY -- LEARN TO SMILE…AND ACT HAPPY!
DOCTORS & AIR-TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS – NEVER SHOW EMOTIONS & GET EXCITED
EVANGELISTS, SPORTS ANNOUNCERS, LAWYERS – SHOW EMOTIONS T/B EFFECTIVE
THE CUSTOMER IS ALWAYS RIGHT – EVEN IF THEY’RE RUDE, IGNORANT, AND DEMANDING
LEARN TO PROJECT ONE EMOTION WHILE FEELING ANOTHER (…put on a “Happy Face”)
(Emotional Dissonance) Felt emotions v. Displayed emotions
SURFACE ACTING ... Deals with DISPLAYED emotions (…VERY STRESSFUL ON THE PERSON)
DEEP ACTING … Deals with FELT emotions
2. CULTURAL INFLUENCES
Americans value enthusiasm
Chinese consider negative emotions ro be useful and constructive
Norms for expressing emotions differ across cultural groups
Americans – smiling is a sign of friendliness – viewed positively
Muslins - smiling is a sign of sexual attraction…so women don’t smile at men
Japanese - smiling indicates a lack of intelligence (…an ignorant airhead!)
French – make no effort to hide their personal feelings about customers
People who know their own emotions and are good at reading others’ feelings.
Managers high in EI seem to be better managers
Being aware of what you’re feeling
The ability to manage your own emotions and impulses
The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures
The ability to sense how others are feeling
The ability to handle the emotions of others
- being street smart and socially intelligent makes sense
IT PREDICTS JOB PERFORMANCE
- correlations found are significant N=59
IT’S BIOLOGICALLY BASED
- it’s neurological and affects decision-making
IT’S TOO VAGUE/TOO BROAD
- no one is sure what this concept is…
- is it intelligence? …self-discipline? …empathy? …or self-awareness?
IT ISN’T MEASURED CONSISTENTLY
- we haven’t used good methodology
IS IT VALID?
- it’s so closely related to personality and intelligence
- when you control for these factors, there isn’t anything left that’s unique
Air Force - hires with high EI scores …2.6 times more successful, lower turnover
L’Oreal – salespersons with high EI scores outsold traditionally-hired salespeople
Negative mood persons made more accurate decisions , but…
Depressed people make poorer decisions than happy people
Positive mood people are more likely to use heuristics or “rules of thumb” and
less likely to explore all possible options, etc.
Positive mood people are more creative than negative mood people
- more flexible and open in their thinking
But, positive moods may allow people to relax & not engage in critical thinking
Giving people feedback about performance affects mood, which impacts motivation
Effective leaders rely on emotional appeals to help convey their messages
When they become excited & enthusiastic, it energizes their subordinates
By arousing emotions and linking them to an appealing vision – getting the workers to accept change is more likely
Negotiators who feign anger have an advantage over their opponent, because the opponent concludes that no more concessions are likely (short-term effect) .
However, poor performance as a negotiator will lead to negative feelings which will impact future relationships (longer-term relationships)
High quality service often puts workers into an “emotionally dissonant” position
which leads to stress, lower job satisfaction, and burnout.
When employees are cranky and out of sorts, it has a negative impact on customers.
But, positive worker attitudes can also be “caught” by customers (emotional contagion) …leading to higher sales and greater loyalty to the company.
Successfully resolving conflicts between coworkers will involve emotions.
The manager must try to get the parties to work through the emotional elements in the conflict…you can’t ignore emotions and only look at the rational and task concerns.
People who had a good day at work tend to be in a better mood when they go home.
People who had a stressful day have a hard time relaxing at home in the evening.
DEVIANT WORK BEHAVIOR
Negative emotions can lead to a number of deviant work behaviors which harm or threaten the organization and its members.
Envy and resentment lead to hostile acts and behaviors.
IMPROVE MOODS BY *
SHOWING A FUNNY VIDEO CLIP
GIVING WORKERS A SMALL BAG OF CANDY
HAVE THEM TASTE A PLEASANT BEVERAGE
USE HUMOR IN THE WORKPLACE
GIVE SMALL TOKENS OF APPRECIATION
SELECT POSITIVE TEAM MEMBERS (Contagion effect)
* These techniques seem to work best with the millenial generation