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Apartments for people to live in. Settler Activity: City Living – Design your own Utopia. Draw a sketch of a city & label the main features. Identify reasons why people are attracted to live in a city?. Office space providing jobs.
Apartments for people to live in. Settler Activity: City Living – Design your own Utopia Draw a sketch of a city & label the main features. Identify reasons why people are attracted to live in a city? Office space providing jobs Related music to focus the group: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mtfnfQoAco
Introduction List the 5 largest cities in the world
Introduction http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/mexico-city/4637.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQwCCm-H-sU&playnext=1&list=PLC1FEBD1A3C0A0BE0&feature=results_video Why are people attracted to live in Cities? (Push Factors) Problems in Rural environments include…? (Pull Factor) People want to leave their villages because…? Task: • Copy Spider diagram • Watch short clips & make notes The vast majority of the worlds population live in urban environments: Urban environments are attractive because…?
Rapid Urban Growth – Causes, Impacts & Management Solutions • Key Words: • Migration • Push & Pull factors • Urbanisation • Counter –urbanisation • Social • Economic • Political • Sustainable • Mega-city Learning Outcomes: All Should: Be able to list the reasons for people moving to cities & consider the good and bad points (D/C Grade). Most Should: Be able to explain the reasons for rapid growth of urban areas. Distinguish between the positive and negative associated issues and management options (B Grade). Some Should:Fully analyse the sustainable development of managing urbanisation using Rio De Janerio as a case study (A Grade).
Urbanisation is taking place at a rapid pace in LEDC cities. This is as a result of a process called rural-urban migration.
The causes of urban growth are…? Well paid jobs, greater opportunities to find casual work, better health care and education availability. Population pressure (e.g. need basic life enabling factors) and lack of resources in rural areas. Natural increase caused by a decrease in death rates due to improved health awareness and people living longer and birth rates remaining at a high level. All Should: Be able to list the reasons for people moving to cities
What is rural-urban migration? • Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the countryside to the city. • This causes three things to happen: Urban growth - towns and cities are expanding, covering a greater area of land. Urbanisation - an increasing proportion of people living in towns and cities. Mega cities - those with over 10 million people. • People are attracted to urban areas because they think that, they will have greater opportunities there. For many, life, is better but some end up in poverty.
Where in the world… Imagine you are a migrant in Brazil. Put the following statements in the appropriate circle on the Venn diagram. 1. I have come from here. 2. I will be able to get better medical treatment. 3. I am most likely to end up living here. 4. Other people like me are likely to be living here. 5. I am least likely to get a job here. 6. I am most likely to work the longest hours here. 7. I am likely to be happy here. 8. My family are likely to be here. 9. The living conditions are going to be the best. 10. I am most likely to get a job here. 11. I am most likely to be able to go to school here. 12. I hope to end up living here. A C B
Problems faced in LEDC cities as a result of rapid urbanisation • Poor electricity and power supplies • Pollution • Lack of clean water • Few employment opportunities • Traffic problems • Poverty • Drugs, gangs and violence • Poor education and health provision • Poor sewerage systems • Poor rubbish collection • Lack of shelter Improve your answers
Task Sort the problems caused by urban growth and development of shanty towns into social, environmental & economic. Shanty towns are built on poor quality or unsafe land so are prone to flooding/landslides/fires Increase in crime Health Problems EG Asthma & Bronchitis caused by pollution Traffic Congestion as cars/buses/rickshaws/animals all share same roads Poverty Water pollution – rivers/seas used as dustbins Sewage on streets leads to water borne disease such as cholera/diarrhoea Unemployment as there are few jobs in formal sector. High birth rates Poor quality building materials and a lack of basic amenities eg running water/toilets in shanty towns Air pollution/Smog from car fumes and factories More street children Rural migrants can’t find jobs because they are often illiterate or non-skilled so the informal sector grows. Break up of families Malnutrition Up to 50% of the population live in Shanty towns Underground water supplies being lost. Wages are low paid and workers are exploited. Overcrowding As shanty towns are built agricultural land/woodland is destroyed. Shanty towns are illegal Disease spreads quickly because of high density housing. High Infant mortality rates
Shanty Towns One problem in LEDC cities is the growth of Shanty Towns. A shanty town is a spontaneous settlement that is often built illegally on unused land along roadsides or on the edge of a city. In Brazil they are called FAVELAS
Reasons for rapid urban growth (push / pull factors) What are the management and sustainable solutions to rapid urban growth. Rapid Urbanisation Case Study – Brazil, Rio De Janerio Impacts of rapid urban growth (crime, poor living conditions etc.)
HOUSING is often a collection of primitive shacks made from any available material. Most houses lack such basic amenities as electricity, gas, running water and sewerage. No refuse collection. HEALTH lack of clean water, no disposal of human waste and rubbish lead to disease. Can't afford doctors. EDUCATION is limited as there are very few schools. Many, even by the age of 6, are trying to earn some money. TRANSPORT earth tracks that often just fill up with rubbish. Few public transport systems. SOCIAL is under constant threat. The factors listed above can lead to break down of marriages. Increase in crime and ‘street children’. Problems/Characteristics of Shanty Towns
Improving Shanty Towns Although most governments would like to remove shanty towns from their cities, they cannot afford to build the necessary replacement accommodation. Two government-assisted schemes in Brazil aimed at improving the quality of life in the shantytowns are: Low-cost Improvements Existing housing is improved by re-building with cheap, quick and easy to use breezeblocks. A tank of water on the roof collects rainwater. Electricity and sewerage may by added. Most people who live in these will have some sort of employment so that they can pay low rents. Self-help schemes Groups of people are encouraged to help build their new homes. Each group will do basic work such as digging the ditches to take the water and sewerage pipes. The local authority will then provide breezeblocks and roofing tiles, and the group will provide the labour. The advantages of this is that it can be done in stages and create a community spirit.
The government puts in basic services such as clean water and sewerage and provides building materials, such as breezeblocks. The families then get together and help build the homes (Some being trained as plumbers, some electricians and so on.) This means that the buildings are relatively cheep, hygienic and creates good community spirit.
Case Study - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Rio de Janeiro is a city located on Brazil's south-east coast. It is one of Brazil's largest settlements with a population of approximately 11.7 million people. The population of Rio de Janeiro has grown for a number of reasons. Natural Increase is one reason for its growth (this is when the birth rate is higher than the death rate). The population has also grown as the result of urbanisation. 65% of urban growth is a result of migration.
What are the impacts of rapid urban growth for Rio? • Housing pressures (growth of favelas such as Rocinha. 40% live in Favelas) • Lack of employment means people are looking for other ways to earn money many will work in the informal sector e.g. porters, shoe shiners this is employment for half the city’s work force • Transport problems – congestion and pollution • Sanitation and Health (sewage, waste disposal, disease) • Problems of energy supply • Increased demand for services (schools and Hospitals) • Social problems (crime, Rio murder capital of world) • Urban sprawl • Shanty towns are built on unstable land of poor materials– risk of landslides & fires.
Example of a Favela: Rocinha • Rocinha is the largest favela in Brazil. • It is located in the southern zone of the city. • It is built on a steep hillside overlooking the city, just one kilometer from the beach. • It is home to between 60,000 to 150,000 people (though this could be more).
Self-help schemes - Rocinha, Favela Bairro Project • The authorities in Rio de Janeiro have taken a number of steps to reduce problems in favelas. • They have set up self-help schemes. This is when the local authority provide local residents with the materials needs to construct permanent accommodation. This includes breeze blocks and cement. The local residents provide the labour. The money saved can be spent on providing basic amenities such as electricity and water.Today, almost all the houses in Rocinha are made from concrete and brick. • Some buildings are three and four stories tall and almost all houses have basic sanitation, plumbing, and electricity. • Compared to simple shanty towns or slums, Rocinha has a better developed infrastructure and hundreds of businesses such as banks, drug stores, bus lines, cable television, including locally based channel TV ROC, and, at one time, even a McDonalds franchise, though it has since closed.
What are the sustainable solutions to other problems in Rio? • Forced evictions of squatter settlements – To clear land for formal development • Low cost housing – Very basic breeze block housing constructed. People re-housed in them. City of God • Site and Service – Land is cleared and building plots prepared with water and electricity. • Self Help Scheme – Existing settlements provided with water, sewage and rubbish collection. Building materials provided for residents to upgrade their homes (Favela Barrio Plan) • Rural Development – To reduce rural to urban migration • Increasing policing - to stop new squatter settlement • Raise taxes - on the rich to pay for improving housing for the poor • Local initiatives – such as Afro-Reggae using music and culture to keep kids away from crime and drugs
Mini Plenary: Graffiti wall of your learning today Most Should: Be able to explain the reasons for rapid growth of urban areas. Distinguish between the positive and negative associated issues and management options (B Grade).
Housing for people to live in. Activity: Rural Living – Design your own village Draw a sketch of a rural village & label the main features. Identify reasons why people are attracted to live in a rural village? Office space providing jobs Related music to focus the group: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mtfnfQoAco
Why would people want to live here?
Counterurbanisation – why are people attracted to live in Rural Areas? • Key Words: • Migration • Push & Pull factors • Urbanisation • Counter –urbanisation • Social • Economic • Political • Sustainable • Mega-city Learning Outcomes: All Should: Be able to list the reasons for people moving to rural areas and consider the good and bad points. Most Should: Be able to explain the reasons for counterurbansiation. Distinguish the positive & negative impact this has on the economy, environment and community and management options. Some Should:Fully analyse the sustainable development of managing counterurbanisations.
Causes Counterurbanisation Consequences What is it? • Learning from Memory Exercise: • Copy down spider diagram • 1 person at a time to visit the laptop / learning station. • Add notes to the spider diagram
What is counter urbanisation? • The movement of people and employment away from large cities to smaller settlements within rural areas (urban-rural migration). • Common in MEDC, opposite to LEDC.
URBAN POPULATION MOVEMENT • Phase 1 • City ‘core is dominant providing jobs / services and drawing in people from rural areas (a stage which most LEDC cities are now in and which MEDC cities have gone through).
URBAN POPULATION MOVEMENT Phase 3 - Suburbanisation (movement back to urban areas) and counter urbanisation are dominant trends - the case in the UK (but some movement back to city centre / inner city areas)
Pull Factors Management of counterurbanisation Push Factors Counterurbanisation Positive and negative impacts of counterurbanisation on rural areas. Who is moving to rural areas? • Visit Each Station: • Copy & complete the spider diagram • Focus on adding detail to your work • 3 minutes per station
Who is moving to rural areas? • The most affluent and mobile people e.g. retired. • Families with children (keen to avoid the possible disadvantages of city locations) Push Factors(reasons for the movement away from cities) High land values making it harder for people to find affordable housing. Higher rates of congestion and pollution Higher crime rates
believed to be a safer and more pleasant environment for children to grow up in. perceived better quality of life. Improvements in transports and technology have led to the increase in counter urbanisation as it has become easier for people to commute to work or indeed work remotely from home, using internet / fax / e-mail technology. Pull Factors (reasons for movements to the countryside) Lower land-values and more affordable housing Less pollution and more open space More businesses locating on greenfield sites to make the most of room for expansion and the more pleasant environment.
House prices increase – locals young people cannot afford to buy property in areas they grew up. This is particularly the case around coastal regions in Devon and Cornwall. Lack of appreciation of traditional customs of village life by newcomers – change in community spirit. Build new housing estates that reduce the rural value. Movement of People To Rural Areas: Negative Effects Increase in population and the pressure on services. Residents tend to commute to urban areas. Therefore, dormitory villages lose vitality and community spirit (very quiet during the day). Local resentment caused by influx of new people
Improvement in services – e.g. gas mains, cable TV, supports local schools More businesses locating on greenfield sites to make the most of room for expansion and the more pleasant environment. Young families have children that attend local schools. Movement of People To Rural Areas: Positive Effects Invest in setting up businesses for rural economy. Supports some local services & businesses and therefore improves locally economy (e.g. bar, builders etc.). Suburbanised Villages - villages growing in size and taking on more urban characteristics
Sustainable rural changes in MEDCs To make rural changes sustainable means to protect the resources, maintain the economy and not let the standard of life suffer for the present residents or those that follow. It is difficult to make sure every aspect of rural change is sustainable. There are some approaches which help towards achieving more sustainability Management of Counterurbanisation Local people can form co-operatives to provide services. Berrynarbor, Ilfracombe, has a community shop that is a good example. Nearly half of the villagers invested in the shop. There is space for locals to stop for coffee and use a computer. There are around 250 community shops in Britain. The government can give money to promote sustainability. The Environmental Stewardship Scheme (ESS) is one example, run by DEFRA. This pays the farmer to improve the landscape, promote public access and conserve wildlife The EU can fund more deprived rural regions through funds such as the European Regional Development Fund. The government has to match the money put in by the EU. National parks in the UK are managed with sustainability in mind. Conflicts between recreation and conservation happen. These conflicts can be managed by clear signage for tourists, restrictions on developing land, and restrictions on traffic and park and ride schemes in some areas.
Revision Points Write down 3 important things that you have learnt from today’s lesson. 1. 2. 3. Keywords: