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The West Between The Wars. Mr. Ermer World History Honors Miami Beach Senior High. An Uneasy Peace. Peace treaty creates new countries, tries to make most happy, but doesn’t US President Wilson knows problems in treaty will lead to another war League of Nations set to deal with probs

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the west between the wars

The West Between The Wars

Mr. Ermer

World History Honors

Miami Beach Senior High

an uneasy peace
An Uneasy Peace
  • Peace treaty creates new countries, tries to make most happy, but doesn’t
  • US President Wilson knows problems in treaty will lead to another war
  • League of Nations set to deal with probs
    • US does not join, Senate rejects the treaty
  • Germany forced to pay $33 billion
  • Germany says it cannot pay, France takes control of Ruhr Valley (industrial center)
  • Germany prints more money=inflation
working toward peace
Working Toward Peace
  • German money becomes worthless
  • Dawes Plan restructures German debt
    • US begins heavy investment in Europe
  • Treaty of Lorcano draws new German boarders
  • Thought to begin new era of European peace
  • 1926: Germany joins League of Nations
  • 26 nations promise to ban war, but no rules of enforcement are set. Promises mean little.
the great depression
The Great Depression
  • Depression: period of low economic activity and rising unemployment
  • Some countries experience slow economy
  • U.S. stock market crash of 1929
  • U.S. banks pull investment from Europe
  • Political leaders offer simple, but radical, solutions—people support them
  • Government economic control increases
  • Marxist/Communist ideas gain popularity
democracy after the war
Democracy After The War
  • After WWI, many European countries adopt democratic systems of government
  • Women gain right to vote in many nations
  • Germany est the Weimar Republic, weak
  • 4.4 million Germans jobless in 1930
  • France most powerful continental nation, but depression hurts confidence in gov
  • Popular Front gov passes economic policy to help end depression, it doesn’t
the uk us
The UK & US
  • United States and Japan replace British goods, British companies hurting
  • UK:Labor Party loses power, Conservatives make changes that help economy
  • John Maynard Keynes argues that the government should put people to work
  • US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt enacts the New Deal to end depression
  • New Deal spends money on public works, and creates Social Security
the rise of european dictators
The Rise of European Dictators
  • Dictatorships rise in Italy, Germany, Spain & the Soviet Union (Russia)
    • France & Britain are only big democracies left
  • Totalitarian State: government aims to control political, economic, social, intellectual and cultural lives of citizens
  • Fascism: state is above all else, strong central government ruled by dictator
  • Authoritarian State: Ultimate authority rests with the state and its dictator
benito mussolini italian fascism
Benito Mussolini & Italian Fascism
  • Economic problems cause middle class fear of Communist revolution like Russia
  • Worker strikes are many and violent
  • Mussolini’s Fascists attack Socialists
  • Uses people’s fears and patriotism to grow support for his Fascist movement
  • 1922: Mussolini named prime minister
    • 1926: All other parties outlawed, OVRA
  • Propaganda molds single-minded community of Italian Fascists
the new soviet union
The New Soviet Union
  • Control of production, lack of goods causes Russians to strike and revolt
  • 1921: Lenin ends war communism for NEP
    • Modified version of capitalism brings growth
  • 1924: Lenin dies, Politburo can’t pick new leader—Trotsky vs. Stalin
    • eventually agrees on Joseph Stalin is leader
  • Stalin gains complete control of Communists
    • Purges all who disagree, Trotsky exiled to Mex.
  • Stalin ends NEP, starts Five-Year Plan
stalin s five year plan
Stalin’s Five Year Plan
  • Sets goals for five year period
  • Russia industrializes very rapidly
    • Cities grow too fast, poor conditions
  • Collectivization of agriculture
  • Stalin strengthens his control of govt
  • Purges all old Bolsheviks
  • 8 million Russians arrested, millions more sent to labor camps or executed
  • Takes back civil rights/freedoms granted in the 20s
other authoritarian regimes
Other Authoritarian Regimes
  • Eastern European countries embrace strong leaders who promise to fight communism
  • Only Czechoslovakia remains democratic
  • 1936: In Spain, General Francisco Franco leads Fascist military revolt
    • Italy and Germany support Franco’s cause
  • 1939: Franco sets up dictatorship in Spain, favoring large landowners, businessmen and priests
adolf hitler the nazis
Adolf Hitler & The Nazis
  • Born 4/20/1889 in Austria, fails high school, goes to Vienna to be artist—fails
  • Fights in WWI’s Western Front, then enters politics in Germany
  • 1921: Hitler controls the National Socialist German Workers Party (NASDAP-”Nazi”)
  • Hitler leads a revolt in Munich, fails, jailed
  • In jail, writes Mein Kampf, where he outlines his belief in Social Darwinism, nationalist, anti-Semitism, and anti-communism
rise of nazism
Rise of Nazism
  • Hitler expands Nazism to all of Germany
  • 1929: Largest party in the Reichstag
  • Conservatives look to Hitler for leadership
  • March 23, 1933: Reichstag passes Enabling Act, Hitler can ignore constitution
  • Concentration Camps set up for opposition
  • All other parties abolished, Hitler is sole ruler of Germany called Fuhrer
  • Nazi’s push for an Aryan nation, to dominate Europe like the Romans as third German Empire (Holy Roman and German Empire of 1871)
nazi germany 1933 1939
Nazi Germany 1933-1939
  • SS: Special force, directed by Heinrich Himmler, acting as Hitler’s body guards, and controlling secret and regular police
  • $$$ put into building and militarization
    • Unemployment down, depression ends
  • Social organizations and parades boost support, help teach Nazi ideals
  • Gender roles defined by the party
  • Anti-Semitic policies enacted by govt
    • November 9, 1938: Kristallnacht
work on it
Work On It:
  • Page 450, write and answer questions 1-8