Major Events of the 19th Century VUS.6 Approximately 1790 – 1860 Mr. LeHew Dual Enrollment US History
Washington Administration With the election of George Washington as the first President of the United States under the Constitution, Congress was given the great task of creating and organizing the new government. A Real American Hero!
The Federal Courts The Constitution authorized Congress to set up a federal court system headed by a Supreme Court but it did not tell them how to organize and create the lower federal courts. The Judiciary Act of 1789 created a judicial structure that has stayed basically intact until today.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 This act established the number of justices on the Supreme Court. There was a Chief Justice and 5 associate justices. We now have 8 associate justices.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 It created 3 Federal Circuit Courts and 13 Federal District Courts. It made sure that federal laws would remain the “supreme law of the land” as directed by Article VI of the Constitution.
The Executive Branch The Constitution only provided for the President and Vice President Washington chose to create a “Cabinet” to help govern Department of State Department of Treasury Department of War Attorney General Post-Master General
The Executive Branch Department of State Headed by Thomas Jefferson Deals with foreign affairs Department of Treasury Headed by Alexander Hamilton Manages finances
The Executive Branch Department of War Headed by Henry Knox Handles military matters Attorney General Headed by Edmund Randolph Chief lawyer of federal government
The Executive Branch Post Master General Headed by Samuel Osgood Handles the Post Offices Cabinet position until 1971 when the Post Office Department was reorganized into the U.S. Postal Service, a separate and independent federal agency.
Financial Plan of Hamilton • Created protective tariffs to promote industry • Established the National Bank to provide the nation with stable currency • Created an excise tax on whiskey to raise revenue
The Whiskey Rebellion - 1794 In 1789, Congress passes a protective tariff on imports from Europe. Hamilton pushes through Congress an excise tax on the manufacture, sales, or distribution of whiskey In Western Pennsylvania, farmers refuse to pay the tax, beat up federal marshals and threaten to secede. The Federal Government sends in 15,000 militiamen, lead by Washington himself, to put down the rebellion without any loss of life. This rebellion helped to consolidate the federal governments power in domestic affairs.
Washington’s Farewell In his farewell address to the country, George Washington said be neutral remain united avoid permanent alliances not have political parties Despite the warnings, the opposing views of Hamilton and Jefferson led to the first two political parties in this country: The Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.
A Nation Politically Divided The first debate of the nature of the Federal Government
Hamilton-Jefferson Debate Hamilton’s Views Concentrate power in federal government Fears mob rule Republic led by a well-educated elite Loose interpretation of the Constitution National bank constitutional (loose interpretation) Economy based on shipping and manufacturing Payment of national and state debts (favoring creditors) Supporters – merchants, manufacturers, landowners, investors, lawyers, and clergy
Hamilton-Jefferson Debate Jefferson’s Views Sharing power with state & local governments; limited national government Fear of absolute power or ruler Democracy of virtuous farmers and trades people Strict interpretation of the Constitution National bank unconstitutional (strict interpretation) Economy based on farming Payment of only the national debt (favoring debtors) Supporters – the “plain people” farmers and trades people
The Factions The Federalists The Democratic- Republicans
The Federalists Headed by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams Believed in a strong national government Favored the development of an industrial economy based on manufacturing Supporters - bankers and business interests in the Northeast
The Democratic-Republicans Headed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Believed in a weak national government Favored the development of an agricultural economy based on farming Supporters – farmers, artisans, and frontier settlers in the South
John Adams’ Presidency 1797 - John Adams became the second President of the United States with Thomas Jefferson as his Vice President 1798 – Adams signs into law a bill creating the United States Navy after the XYZ Affair occurs
XYZ Affair To steer clear of war with France, President Adams sent a delegation to France The delegation wanted to meet with the French foreign minister but only was allowed to meet with 3 low-level officials These official demanded a $250,000 bribe as payment Upon learning about this insult, a wave of anti-French sentiment swept the United States
Alien and Sedition Acts Passed because of the growing anti-French feeling that continued to flourish Alien Acts American citizenship requirement increased from 5 to 14 years President could deport or jail any alien considered undesirable Sedition Act Set fines and jail terms for anyone trying to impede how the government was run or who made “false, scandalous, and malicious statements” against the government
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions Madison wrote the resolutions for Virginia Jefferson wrote them for Kentucky Written in opposition to the Alien & Sedition Acts They stated that the states had the right to nullify (consider void) any act of Congress that they deemed unconstitutional They believed the Alien & Sedition Acts violated the First Amendment rights of citizens
Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson John Adams
Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson became the 3rd president of the United States after the House of Representatives decided the election. Jefferson – 73 Aaron Burr – 73 John Adams – 65 C. C. Pinckney – 64 John Jay – 1
Election of 1800 After realizing there was a flaw in the Electoral College, Congress fixed the flaw by passing the Twelfth Amendment which calls for having the electors cast the same ballot for President and Vice President. Created concept of “The Presidential Ticket”
Jefferson’s Administration First President to take the oath of office in Washington, D.C. First peaceful transition of political power from one political party to the next Believed in free trade with Europe, especially France Shrank the size of the federal government (but doubled size of the United States) Cut costs wherever and whenever possible
John Marshall and the Supreme Court Was appointed as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by John Adams Served on the court for over thirty years Strengthened the power of the Supreme Court and the federal government
Marbury v. Madison John Adams signed the appointments of sixteen new federal judges late on the last day of his administration. Some of the appointments were never delivered and Jefferson believed that since they were not, that they were invalid. Marbury was one of the midnight judges who did not receive his appointment. The Judiciary Act of 1789 required that the appointments be delivered and Marbury sued to enforce this provision.
Marbury v. Madison John Marshall delivered the Court’s decision. Marshall did believe that Marbury deserved his commission but not under the provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789 because it was unconstitutional Therefore act was void and so was Marbury’s claim. By doing this, John Marshall and the Supreme Court were able to use the power of judicial review.
Judicial Review The power of the Supreme Court to decide whether or not specific laws are valid. This made the Court a co-equal branch because it sent the executive and legislative branches a message that the judicial branch had the power to affect legislation.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803 Napoleon Bonaparte decides to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States US purchased the territory for $15 million The size of the United States doubled after the Senate ratified the treaty
The Explorers & Their Guide Lewis and Clark Sacajawea
Exploring the Territory Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore Lewis lead what he called the Corps of Discovery from St. Louis, Missouri to the Pacific coast Discoveries included unknown plants and animals and new Native American tribes Sacajawea was a guide and interpreter The expedition took 2 years and 4 months to complete
The United States has to defend it’s claims as a nation against an old enemy. The “forgotten” War of 1812
Jefferson and Madison’s Response • Embargo Act of 1807 – prohibited all American trade with foreign ports • Greatly hurt American shipping and the US economy • New Englanders hated Jefferson (“Mad Tom”) • Madison elected 1808 • Realized Embargo Act hurt US much more than France or Britain • Passed the “Non-Intercourse Act” • Reopened American trade with all nations except Fr and Britain • Would trade with France and Britain if they would respect US neutral rights
Causes of the War of 1812 British seizure of more than 1,000 American ships and their cargoes French seized about 500 ships and cargoes Impressments – seizing of Americans at sea and drafting them into the British navy
The War of 1812 Madison sends to Congress a declaration of war against Great Britain Congress approves the declaration in June 1812 America’s initially unprepared for war and the British seize Detroit William Henry Harrison defeats the Native Americans at the Battle of Tippecanoe US invaded Canada in three places but failed to take over; Burned the City of York (Toronto)
Major Events of 1812-1813 • Matthew Perry defeats the British fleet at Put-in-Bay in 1813 and Americans gain control of Lake Erie • American privateers damaged British shipping • British navy blockaded US Coast
Major Events of 1814 • Chesapeake Campaign • 1814 -- British burned Washington, DC • First Lady Dolly Madison rescued valuables from the White House • Battle of Fort McHenry -- British bombard Baltimore, MD • Francis Scott Key -- wrote TheStar Spangled Banner after the Battle of Fort McHenry
The War Ends…Sort of… Treaty of Ghent, December 24, 1814 An armistice was declared to end the fighting Did not address the issue of impressments or shipping rights Americans welcomed the treaty and eager for peace Battle of New Orleans, January 8, 1815 Occurred after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent Andrew Jackson’s greatest victory Jackson’s troops defeated a superior British force Hundreds of British troops died Only a handful of Americans died
Presidency of James Monroe (Number 5) The Era of Good Feelings
Era of Good Feelings • James Monroe elected in 1816, effectively unopposed • His term in office marks the beginning of the “Era of Good Feelings” • Nationalism (love for one’s country) was sweeping the nation • Victory in War of 1812 • New generation of war heroes • American System
Making It Work • Protective tariffs (mild) • Tariff Act of 1816 • Tariff is strengthened in 1828 • National banking system • (notes on next slide) • Improved transportation • (notes on next slide)
Second Bank of the U.S. • The charter of the First Bank of the US expired in 1811 and was not renewed • State banks took over the business of banking and printing money which makes trade difficult • 1816: Congress chartered the Second Bank of the US with 25 branches • Issues its own paper money which is accepted throughout the US • Starts a two year business boom
Building of the National Road (today it is I-40) Construction of canals begins Money comes from the protective tariff Improved transportation
The coming of the Industrial Revolution in the United States A closer look at the American System
Industrial Revolution John Kay’s flying shuttle (1733) • Great Britain starts the Industrial Revolution during the 18th century with inventions like: James Hargreave’s Spinning Jenny (1764) Richard Arkwright’s water frame (1769)
Industrial Revolution James Watt’s steam engine (1769) Edmund Cartwright’s power loom (1785) Samuel Crompton’s spinning mule (1779)
America Industrializes America becomes an industrialized nation for many reasons but the first and foremost was because of war. America’s primary source of income after the War for Independence was international trade Because of the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812, America will become an industrial nation.