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Foundations of the 19 th Century. First Treaty of Paris, May 1814. Bourbons restored to the throne of France In the form of Louis XVIII. 2. France made to give-up all of its Conquests after 1792. 3. France regained most of its overseas Colonies lost in the wars.

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first treaty of paris may 1814
First Treaty of Paris, May 1814
  • Bourbons restored to the throne of France
  • In the form of Louis XVIII

2. France made to give-up all of its

Conquests after 1792

3. France regained most of its overseas

Colonies lost in the wars.

4. France was not required to pay an



the hundred days
The Hundred Days





The Allies again send Napoleon into exile, this time on St. Helena in the South Atlantic

He dies there in 1821.

Napoleon leaves Elba & lands

in Southern France on March 1 1815.

The Army rallies around him.

March 20th he enters Paris in triumph.

Louis XVIII flees France to save himself.

Napoleon promises new progressive reforms and not to return to conquests.

Allies don’t believe him and begin to move against him.

Napoleon decides to attack the allies in Belgium.

The British under Wellington & the Prussians under Blucher defeat Napoleon at Waterloo on June 18, 1815.

the congress of vienna
The Congress of Vienna

Congress met from September 1814 to June 1815.

Great powers (Britain, Prussia, Russia, Austria, and France) dominated the proceedings.


  • Prevent France from pursuing
  • further wars of aggression

2. Restore a balance of power in

Europe with equality among states

3. Principle of Legitimacy – return

To pre-revolution status quo.

4. Allies were to be rewarded for

Victory and those defeated had

To be punished.

statesmen at the congress
Statesmen at the Congress
  • Prince Klemens von Metternich
  • - Austria’s foreign minister
  • - Strong conservative advocate.

2. Viscount Castlereagh of Britain

- Supported Metternich

3. Tsar Alexander I of Russia

- Agreed with allies, pushed for

control of Poland

4. Prince Karl von Hardenberg

- Represented Prussia

5.Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand

- Represented France


klemens von metternich
Klemens von Metternich
  • Conservative statesman who considered liberalism and nationalism a great threat.
  • Advocated intervention in any country to keep the conservative order in place.
  • In 1819, Metternich issued to Carlsbad Decrees. These measures suppressed nationalist movements in German states and placed severe restrictions on universities.
  • Principle of Legitimacy upheld.
  • - Bourbons returned to power.

2. Holy Roman Empire was not

Recreated – German Confederation

3. Britain and Austria oppose the

Plan proposed by Prussia & Russia

Over Poland and Saxony.

4. Russia and Prussia back down

Each gets smaller amount of land.

territorial settlement
Territorial Settlement





Russia gained land in Poland and retained Finland

Acquired 2/5 of Saxony and territory in the Rhineland

Lost Belgium to the Netherlands, gained land in Italy

Acquired Cape Colony, Ceylon, Trinidad and Tobago and Malta

second treaty of paris
Second Treaty of Paris
  • Following Napoleon’s final
  • defeat the Allies imposed a more
  • Severe settlementon France

2. France was reduced to the

borders of 1790.

3. French required to pay an

Indemnity of 700 million francs to


4. Allies occupied 17 French forts

For 5 years.

the alliance system
The Alliance System
  • The Holy Alliance
  • - Russia, Prussia &
  • Austria allied on
  • “Christian” Principles



2. Quadruple Alliance

- With the addition of

Britain, maintained

alliance that fought




Concert of Europe


3. Concert of Europe

- Designed to maintain

the system devised at

the Congress of Vienna


independence movements
Independence Movements

Opposition to the Restored Order

Revolts in Spain and Italy for liberal reforms, crushed by French & Austrians

Revolt against Turkish rule in Greece – leads to independence in 1829

Belgium received independence from Holland after revolt in 1830.

Revolts in Latin America lead to independence of most nations

industrialization in europe iron and coal
Industrialization in Europe -Iron and Coal
  • The extraction and refinement of coal and iron in the early 19th century made new industrial production possible.
  • Iron was the best metal for making machinery
  • Coal was the best power source in light of reduced availability of timber.
  • The puddling process used coke to create better quality iron.
  • Britain had significant coal and iron deposits.
the steam engine
The Steam Engine
  • The steam engine had been used in mining since the middle 18th century.
  • More efficient steam engines expanded the use of steam power.
  • Steam power was an essential part of the blast furnace for iron smelting.
  • James Watt increased the efficiency and design of steam engines, making them feasible for use in transportation,
  • Road and canal building in Great Britain and on the continent in the early 19th century was a major government expenditure and undertaking.
  • Roads and canals linked the coal and iron fields with ports and manufacturing centers, allowing the materials to be processed.
  • The development of steam engines and better quality iron led to the development of railroads.
  • George Stephenson was the first to produce an economically viable locomotive in 1825.
  • Railroads soon spread across Britain and Europe.
  • By 1870, European railroad mileage totaled almost 900,000 miles
effects of the wars
Effects of the Wars
  • Britain’s lead in industrialization increased in the period between 1789 and 1815.
  • Britain’s insular position and connections to the rest of the world continued the industrial process, while chaos on the continent slowed it.
  • The debt and change of the post-war years led to a slow return to economic growth.
industrialization spreads
Industrialization spreads
  • In the years after 1815, industrialization spread more extensively to the continent.
  • This was seen primarily in Belgium, Western Germany, Northern France and the Netherlands.
  • This was due to the availability of natural resources, trade networks, and new free market policies that developed during the Revolution and Napoleonic periods.
social effects of industrialization
Social Effects of Industrialization
  • The movement of weaving and other industries to factories changed the economic and social landscape.
  • Production occurred on a massive scale and led to the mass migration of people to cities.
  • Differentiation (in division of labor, class, or government) had a significant impact on social relationships.
the family
The Family
  • Family roles changed due to the changes occurring and varied among classes.
  • More women and children were found in the workplace as the need for unskilled labor rose (leaving skilled men unemployed).
  • Development of “middle class values” during this period influenced the views of work and of women’s roles in contrast to working class and aristocratic ideas.
standard of living
Standard of Living
  • Wealth grew dramatically during the early 19th century, but the middle and upper classes benefited the most.
  • Living conditions in the factory towns were often deplorable and overcrowded.
  • Cyclical unemployment kept many families on the brink of starvation.
  • Even so, standards of living did start to rise by mid-century due to economic stabilization and business reforms.