Chapter 2: Genes and Heredity How Genes and Environment Interact By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook & Cook)
How Genes and Environment Interact • G x E Interaction – The interacting effects of genetics and the environment on the development of traits and behaviors. • Ways genes & environment interact: • Range of Reaction • Canalization • Niche-picking • Probabilistic Epigenesis
Range of Reaction • The range of possible phenotypes (traits or behaviors) that exist for a particular genotype (genetic code). • Genes set boundaries; environment determines which possible outcomes actually materialize.
Canalization • Genetic limits on the effects of the environment. In experiential canalization, in contrast, it is the environment that limits the expression of genes.
Niche-Picking • The tendency to pick activities and environments that fit with our genetic predisposition. • During infancy, genes operate in passive manner • As child gets older, genes play more evocative role • As child gets even older and has more freedom, genes work in more active way
Probabilistic Epigenesis • The likelihood that specific environmental conditions will activate specific genes that lead to particular traits or behavioral outcomes. • Interdependency of genes and environment. • Individual’s environment controls which parts of genome activated. • Change in environment may produce change in genes expressed.
Chart on Slide 4: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 67). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. • Canalization on Slide 6: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 68). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. • Probabilistic Epigenesis on Slide 9: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 70). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. • All other images retrieved from Microsoft PowerPoint Clip Art.