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Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance
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Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

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  1. Chapter 11 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Section2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance Section 3: Chromosomes and Human Heredity Review overhead notes

  2. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Recessive Genetic Disorders • A recessive trait is expressed when the individual is homozygous recessive for the trait.

  3. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11

  4. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Cystic Fibrosis • Affects the mucus-producing glands, digestive enzymes, and sweat glands • Chloride ions are not absorbed into the cells of a person with cystic fibrosis but are excreted in the sweat. • Without sufficient chloride ions in the cells, a thick mucus is secreted.

  5. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Albinism • Caused by altered genes, resulting in the absence of the skin pigment melanin in hair and eyes • White hair • Very pale skin • Pink pupils

  6. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11

  7. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Tay-Sachs Disease • Caused by the absence of the enzymes responsible for breaking down fatty acids called gangliosides • Gangliosides accumulate in the brain, inflating brain nerve cells and causing mental deterioration.

  8. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Galactosemia • Recessive genetic disorder characterized by the inability of the body to digest galactose.

  9. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Dominant Genetic Disorders • Huntington’s disease affects the nervous system. • Achondroplasia is a genetic condition that causes small body size and limbs that are comparatively short.

  10. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

  11. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11

  12. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Pedigrees • A diagram that traces the inheritance of a particular trait through several generations

  13. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Inferring Genotypes • Knowing physical traits can determine what genes an individual is most likely to have. Predicting Disorders • Record keeping helps scientists use pedigree analysis to study inheritance patterns, determine phenotypes, and ascertain genotypes.

  14. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Incomplete Dominance • The heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygous phenotypes.

  15. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Codominance • Both alleles are expressed in the heterozygous condition.

  16. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Sickle-cell Disease Normal red blood cell • Changes in hemoglobin cause red blood cells to change to a sickle shape. • People who are heterozygous for the trait have both normal and sickle-shaped cells. Sickle cell 7766x

  17. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Multiple Alleles • Blood groups in humans • ABO blood groups have three forms of alleles.

  18. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Coat Color of Rabbits • Multiple alleles can demonstrate a hierarchy of dominance. • In rabbits, four alleles code for coat color: C, cch, ch,and c.

  19. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Coat Color of Rabbits Chinchilla Albino Light gray Dark gray Himalayan

  20. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Epistasis • Variety is the result of one allele hiding the effects of another allele. eebb eeB_ E_bb E_B_ Dark pigment present in fur No dark pigment present in fur

  21. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Sex Determination • Sex chromosomesdetermine an individual’s gender.

  22. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Sex-Linked Traits • Genes located on the X chromosome • Red-green color blindness • Hemophilia

  23. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Polygenic Traits • Polygenic traits arise from the interaction of multiple pairs of genes.

  24. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Environmental Influences • Environmental factors • Diet and exercise • Sunlight and water • Temperature

  25. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Twin Studies • Helps scientists separate genetic contributions from environmental contributions • Traits that appear frequently in identical twins are at least partially controlled by heredity. • Traits expressed differently in identical twins are strongly influenced by environment.

  26. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.3 Chromosomes and Human Heredity Karyotype Studies • Karyotype—micrograph in which the pairs of homologous chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size. • Images of chromosomes stained during metaphase • Chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size to produce a micrograph.

  27. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.3 Chromosomes and Human Heredity Nondisjunction • Cell division during which sister chromatids fail to separate properly • Down syndrome

  28. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11

  29. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.

  30. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 FQ 2 11.1 Formative Questions Which is the genotype of a person who is a carrier for a recessive genetic disorder? • DD • Dd • dd • dE

  31. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 FQ 3 11.1 Formative Questions Albinism is a recessive condition. If an albino squirrel is born to parents that both have normal fur color, what can you conclude about the genotype of the parents? • at least one parent is a carrier • both parents are carriers • both parents are homozygous recessive • at least one parent is homozygous dominant

  32. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 FQ 4 11.2 Formative Questions When a homozygous male animal with black fur is crossed with a homozygous female with white fur, they have offspring with gray fur. What type of inheritance does this represent? • dosage compensation • incomplete dominance • multiple alleles • sex-linked

  33. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 FQ 5 11.2 Formative Questions Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human cells, one pair is the _______. • autosomes • Barr bodies • monosomes • sex chromosomes

  34. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 FQ 6 11.2 Formative Questions Which is an example of a polygenic trait? • blood type • color blindness • hemophilia • skin color

  35. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 FQ 7 11.3 Formative Questions What does a karyotype show? • The blood type of an individual. • The locations of genes on a chromosome. • The cell’s chromosomes arranged in order. • The phenotype of individuals in a pedigree.

  36. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 FQ 8 11.3 Formative Questions What is occurring in this diagram? • multiple alleles • nondisjunction • nonsynapsis • trisomy

  37. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 FQ 9 11.3 Formative Questions What condition occurs when a person’s cells have an extra copy of chromosome 21? • Down syndrome • Klinefelter’s syndrome • Tay-Sachs syndrome • Turner’s syndrome

  38. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 CAQ 1 Chapter Assessment Questions Use the figure to describe what the top horizontal line between numbers 1 and 2 indicates. • 1 and 2 are siblings • 1 and 2 are parents • 1 and 2 are offspring • 1 and 2 are carriers

  39. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 CAQ 2 Chapter Assessment Questions Which is not an allele in the ABO blood group? • IA • IO • IB • i

  40. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 CAQ 3 Chapter Assessment Questions Down Syndrome results from what change in chromosomes? • one less chromosome on pair 12 • one extra chromosome on pair 21 • one less chromosome on pair 21 • one extra chromosome on pair 12

  41. A B C Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 STP 1 Standardized Test Practice If a genetic disorder is caused by a dominant allele, what is the genotype of those who do not have the disorder? • heterozygous • homozygous dominant • homozygous recessive

  42. A B C Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 STP 2 Standardized Test Practice Analyze this pedigree showing the inheritance of a dominant genetic disorder. Which would be the genotype of the first generation father? • RR • Rr • rr

  43. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 STP 3 Standardized Test Practice Shorthorn cattle have an allele for both red and white hair. When a red-haired cow is crossed with a white-haired bull, their calf has both red and white hairs scattered over its body. What type of inheritance does this represent? • codominance • dosage compensation • epistasis • sex-linked

  44. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 STP 4 Standardized Test Practice Why are males affected by recessive sex-linked traits more often than are females? • Males have only one X chromosome. • Males have two X chromosomes. • Males have only one Y chromosome. • The traits are located on the Y chromosomes.

  45. A B C D Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 STP 5 Standardized Test Practice A carrier of hemophilia and her husband, who is unaffected by the condition, are expecting a son. What is the probability that their son will have hemophilia? • 25% • 50% • 75% • 100%

  46. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Vocabulary Section 1 carrier pedigree

  47. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Vocabulary Section 2 incomplete dominance codominance multiple alleles epistasis sex chromosome autosome sex-linked trait polygenic trait

  48. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 Vocabulary Section 3 karyotype telomere nondisjunction