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Chapter 4 . Kellyn Montgomery Libby Killian. Psychodynamic Theory. Personality development and emotional problems Internal drives that are often unconscious . Psychodynamic Theorists. Sigmund Freud People possess 3 basic drives Sexual Drive Survival Instincts Drive for Destructiveness

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Kellyn Montgomery

Libby Killian


Psychodynamic theory
Psychodynamic Theory

  • Personality development and emotional problems

  • Internal drives that are often unconscious


Psychodynamic theorists
Psychodynamic Theorists

  • Sigmund Freud

    • People possess 3 basic drives

      • Sexual Drive

      • Survival Instincts

      • Drive for Destructiveness

    • Personality was defined by 3 structures

      • Id- drives a person to achieve satisfaction

      • Ego- forms a person sense of self

      • Superego- moral side


Psychodynamic theorists1
Psychodynamic Theorists

  • Erik Erikson

    • Most influential psychoanalyst alive today

    • American developmental psychologist

    • Helped to broaden and expand psychoanalytic theory

    • Stages of Psychosocial Development theory


Psychodynamic theorists2
Psychodynamic Theorists

Erickson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development


Behaviorist theory
Behaviorist Theory

  • Describes development and learning

  • “the most distinctively American contribution to psychology”

  • Behavior is learned and can be modified or changed by varying external conditions


Behaviorist theorists
Behaviorist Theorists

  • Ivan Pavlov

    • Russian Physiologist, association of involuntary reflexes- classical conditioning

  • John B. Watson

    • American Theorist, gave scientific validity that teachers should set conditions for learning and reward proper responses


Behaviorist theorists1
Behaviorist Theorists

  • Edward L. Thorndike

    • “Godfather of Standardized Testing”,

    • “Stimulus Response” technique

    • helped develop scales to measure student achievement

  • B.F. Skinner

    • Created the doctrine of “empty organism”, maintained that there is no behavior that cannot be modified


Behaviorist theorists2
Behaviorist Theorists

  • Albert Bandura

    • Developed social learning, believed in modeling in children worked

    • provided “stronger evidence that exposure to filmed aggression heightens aggressive human and cartoon models on film exhibited nearly twice as much aggression than did subjects in the control group who were not exposed to the aggressive film content”


Cognitive theory
Cognitive Theory

  • Describes the structure and development of the human thought process

  • How the processes affect the way a person understand and perceives the world


Cognitive theorists
Cognitive Theorists

  • Jean Jacques Piaget

    • Most exciting research theorist in child development

    • Studied both thought processes and how they changed with age


Sociocultural theory
Sociocultural Theory

  • Focuses on a child as a whole

  • Incorporates ideas of cultures and values into a child's development

  • Particularly the areas of language and self identity


Sociocultural theorists
Sociocultural Theorists

  • Lev Vygotsky

    • Focuses on values and traditions are transmitted into the next generation

    • Like Erickson, he believe the connection between culture and development particularly the interpersonal connection between the child and other important people


Ecological theory
Ecological Theory

  • Development is based on forces outside the child


Ecological theorists
Ecological Theorists

  • Urie Bronfenbrenner

    • 4 systems that influence Human Development

      • Exosystem

      • Microsystem

      • Microsystem

      • Chronsystem


Multiple intelligences theory
Multiple Intelligences Theory

  • Asserts that there is strong evidence from the brain based research and from the study geniuses that there are at least 8 different intelligences



Maturation theory
Maturation Theory

  • The process of physical and mental growth that is determined by heredity


Maturation theorists
Maturation Theorists

  • Arnold Gesell

    • Physician intrigued with emotion that children internal clocks go with their aggression and behavior


Humanistic theory
Humanistic Theory

  • 2 parts of this theory Psychodynamic and Behaviorism

  • A place in early childhood education because it attempts to explain how people are motivated

  • Focuses on peoples needs, goals and successes


Humanistic theorists
Humanistic Theorists

  • Maslow

    • Asserts that every human being is influence by basic needs regardless of gender, race, gene etc.]

    • Basic need is

      • Who's absence breeds illness

      • Who's presence prevents illness

      • Who's respiration cures illness

      • Preferred by the deprived person over other satisfactions over certain conditions

      • Found to be inactive at low ebb


Nature vs nurture
Nature vs. Nurture

  • Some say It’s determined by our inherited genes

  • Others say the driving force is our upbringing and the nurturing we get from our parents.

  • Nature is that which is inherited / genetic.

  • Nurture which refers to all environmental influences after conception, i.e. experience

  • http://www.simplypsychology.org/naturevsnurture.html

  • http://blog.smu.edu/research/2010/12/01/new-child-development-theory-bridges-nature-vs-nurture-parental-guidance-shapes-childs-strengths/