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Blindness. Ines Serrano MD Evan Waxman MD PHD. "There is no better way to thank God for your sight than by giving a helping hand to someone in the dark.”. Helen Keller.

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blindness

Blindness

Ines Serrano MD

Evan Waxman MD PHD

slide2

"There is no better way to thank God for your sight than by giving a helping hand to someone in the dark.”

Helen Keller

slide3

Every five seconds one person in the world goes blind.One child goes blind every minute.http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/pr79/en/

facts
Facts

http://www.kernersvillerotary.org/images2009/052107BlindSchool7.JPG

According to WHO:

  • It is estimated that over seven million people become blind every year.
  • 75% of blindness is avoidable
  • 80% of visual impairment is avoidable
  • 63% of those with low vision and 82% of blind people are over 50 years of age
  • Of the six WHO regions, South East Asia and Western Pacific account for 73% of moderate to severe visual impairment and 58% of blindness.

http://www.who.int/topics/blindness/en/

key facts
Key Facts
  • About 285 million people are visually impaired world wide, 39.8 million of them are blind
  • Most of the people with visual impairment are older, and females are more at risk at every age, in every part of the world.
  • 90% of people with visual impairments live in developing countries

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/index.html

key facts7
Key Facts
  • Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness globally, except in the most developed countries.
  • Cataract surgery and correction of refractive errors are among the most cost-effective health interventions.

http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/vision/04_en.html

key facts8
Key Facts
  • 1.4 million children under age 15 are blind.
  • Correction of refractive errors could give normal vision to more than 12 million children (ages 5-15).
  • The number of people blinded by infectious diseases has been greatly reduced. Age related impairment is increasing.
  • Blinding trachoma affects 40 million people today, compared to 360 million in 1985.

http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/blindness/blindness_facts/en/index7.html

definition
DEFINITION
  • A key issue in any discussion of blindness is its definition. The elements of this definition that need attention are
    • level of distance visual acuity,
    • presenting or best-corrected visual acuity
    • visual field constriction.
  • In the United States, legal blindness is defined as distance visual acuity ≤20/200.

Tasman, Duane's Ophthalmology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ( 2005)

definitions icd 10 h54
Definitions (ICD-10):H54
  • Low Vision: Visual acuity of less than 6/18 but equal to better than 3/60 or corresponding visual field loss to less than 20 degrees in the better eye with the best possible correction
  • Blindness: Visual acuity <3/60 or a corresponding visual field loss to less than 10 degrees in the better eye with the best possible correction.
  • Visual Impairment Includes low vision as well blindness

http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/82/11/en/844.pdf

definition11
DEFINITION
  • This definition, based on best-corrected visual acuity, excludes the large number of people worldwide who are visually impaired due to uncorrected refractive error.
  • Visual field constriction, independent of visual acuity, causes functional impairment. The inclusion of visual field criteria in the definition of blindness is recommended by the ICD-10
  • Visual fields are difficult to assess and many studies have not included visual field constriction in estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment.
visual function
VISUAL FUNCTION
  • In addition, visual function is comprised of many other components. These include
    • visual field
    • color perception
    • stereoacuity
    • glare recovery
    • dark adaptation
    • contrast sensitivity function.
  • These qualities of vision are not commonly assessed in population based visual impairment prevalence studies
levels of visual function
Levels of Visual Function
  • 1.- Normal vision
  • 2.- Moderate visual impairment
  • 3.- Severe visual impairment
  • 4.– Blindness

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/

slide14

http://www.who.int/blindness/Change%20the%20Definition%20of%20Blindness.pdfhttp://www.who.int/blindness/Change%20the%20Definition%20of%20Blindness.pdf

the distribution of blind all ages in the six who regions millions
The distribution of blind all ages in the six WHO Regions (millions)

http://www.who.int/blindness/table/en/index.html

blindness children causes
Blindness Childrencauses

1.4 million children under age 15 are blind.

The major causes of blindness in children vary widely from region to region and are largely determined by socioeconomic development, the availability of primary health care and eye care services.

The available data suggests that, worldwide, corneal scarring is the single most important cause of avoidable blindness in childhood, followed by cataract and ROP.

http://www.who.int/bulletin/archives/79(3)227.pdf

http://www.vision2020kano.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/african-child-blind1-300x204.jpg

cataract
CATARACT

http://www.who.int/entity/blindness/causes/cata%20djib%2096.JPG

cataract21
CATARACT
  • The primary function of the ocular lens is to transmit light and to focus it on the retina.
  • A cataract occurs when the lens loses its clarity such that visual acuity is compromised.
  • Cataracts can result from genetic, metabolic, nutritional, or environmental insults or can be secondary to other ocular or systemic conditions, such as diabetes.
  • The most important risk factor is age; age-related cataract constitutes the great majority of all cataracts.
  • Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness globally.

Tasman, Duane's Ophthalmology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ( 2005)

cataract treatment
CATARACT TREATMENT
  • There are no medications or eye drops to treat cataracts.
  • Cataracts never get better on their own.
  • Treatment for cataract is surgery to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with clear artificial lens.
  • The surgery is usually performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia.
  • Cataract surgery is one of the most cost-effective health interventions.
glaucoma
GLAUCOMA

Author’s clinical photograph

glaucoma25
GLAUCOMA
  • Glaucoma is a group of diseases which results in progressive damage to the optic nerve.
  • Optic nerve damage leads to slow irreversible constriction of peripheral vision and, if untreated, blindness.
  • Optic nerve damage can be seen as excavation or ‘cupping’ of the optic nerve head.
  • Glaucoma is often but not always associated with elevated intraocular pressure.
glaucoma treatment
GLAUCOMA TREATMENT

Glaucoma can be controlled by lowering intraocular pressure using

  • Medication (eye drops)
  • Laser therapy
  • Surgery
age related macular degeneration
AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

http://www.aao.orgmedialibrary

age related macular degeneration29
AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
  • Age related macular degeneration (AMD) results in progressive damage to the macula, the small area in the retina responsible for sharp and central vision.
  • The major risks for AMD are age and family history.
  • AMD causes central vision loss. Central vision is critical for reading and recognizing faces
  • AMD is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in industrialized countries.
age related macular degeneration31
AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
  • Dry AMD is characterized by progressive atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, accumulation of retinal metabolic products and loss of retinal photoreceptor function.
  • Dry AMD can be slowed using a combination of Vit A, Vit E, Vit C, Zinc and Copper.
  • Wet AMD is characterized by bleeding underneath the retina
  • Wet AMD is treated by injection of anti Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor antibodies into the eye
diabetic retinopathy
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

Author’s clinical photo

diabetic retinopathy33
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
  • Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age in industrialized countries.
  • DR can be a complication of diabetes type1 or type 2.
  • DR results from damage to the blood vessels of the retina, the ‘photographic film’ of the eye.
  • Initially, DR is asymptomatic. If not treated though it can cause low vision and blindness.
  • Risk factors associated with DR include duration of diabetes and poor blood sugar control.
diabetic retinopathy treatment
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY TREATMENT

The best treatment for DR is prevention – control of blood sugar

Once DR threatens vision treatments can include:

  • Laser therapy to seal leaking blood vessels (focal laser)
  • Laser therapy to reduce retinal oxygen demand (scatter laser)
  • Surgical removal of blood from the eye (vitrectomy)
trachoma
Trachoma

http://www.aao.orgmedialibrary

trachoma36
TRACHOMA

http://www.vision2020.org/image/Diagrams/global%20active%20may%202006.jpg

  • Trachoma is caused by infection of the ocular surface by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes A-C.
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is endemic in many countries of Africa Middle east, South America, and Asia.
  • Trachoma can cause a severe inflammation of the ocular surface resulting in scarring of the eyelids. This causes eyelashes to grow in the wrong direction and rub the cornea (clear front ‘window’ of the eye)
  • Multiple reinfections can cause scarring and opacity of the cornea.
trachoma treatment
TRACHOMA TREATMENT
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends carrying out an initiative called ‘SAFE’. SAFE stands for:
  • Surgery to repair damage to the eye.
  • Antibiotics to treat the infection.
  • Face washing to reduce the spread of infection.
  • Environmental changes, such as providing access to clean water and suitable sanitation.

Mass antibiotic treatment with single-dose oral azithromycin reduces the prevalence of active trachoma and ocular infection in communities.

http://www.who.int/blindness/causes/trachoma/en/index.html

onchocerciasis
Onchocerciasis

http://www.unep.org/yearbook/2004/097.htm

onchocerciasis40
ONCHOCERCIASIS
  • Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus
  • This worm is transmitted by the Simulium black fly, which breeds in the rivers and streams of Africa, Brazil, Mexico, the Middle East, and parts of Central America.
  • Onchocerciasis is endemic in at least 27 sub-Saharan African countries, and in Yemen
  • Studies indicate that most eye clinical manifestations occur in response to degenerating microfilariae and the release of endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria.

http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241500722_eng.pdf

onchocerciasis treatment
Onchocerciasis Treatment
  • The treatment for onchocerciasis is ivermectin.
  • A single dose of ivermectin needs to be taken annually to be effective
  • Targeting endosymbiotic Wolbachia species has emerged as as a new approach in the control of onchocerciasis
  • Onchocerca embryogenesis is completely dependent on the presence of Wolbachia, studies of doxycycline therapy (100–200 mg/d for 6 wk) have shown great promise.

Saint André A, Blackwell NM, Hall LR, Hoerauf A, Brattig NW, Volkmann L, Taylor MJ, Ford L, Hise AG, Lass JH, Diaconu E, Pearlman E. The role of endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in the pathogenesis of river blindness. Science. 2002 Mar 8;295(5561):1892-5

http://www.who.int/entity/pbd/blindness/onchocerciasis/en/onchocerca_volvulus.jpg

retinopathy of prematurity
Retinopathy of Prematurity

http://www.aao.orgmedialibrary

retinopathy of prematurity rop
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

ftp://ftp.nei.nih.gov/eye_exam/exam13_150.tif

  • ROP is a disease that affect s a premature infants and is an important cause of childhood blindness in developed countries.
  • Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) results from damage to the retina due to incomplete development of retinal blood vessels prior to birth
  • The primary risk factor for ROP is low gestational age at birth and the smaller a baby is at birth the more likely that the baby is to develop ROP.
  • Major risk factors• Low birthweight (less than 1500 grams)• Low gestational age (32 weeks or less)
  • Over 80% of infants born at less than 28 weeks’ gestational age develop ROP and 60% of infants born at 28−31weeks develop ROP.

Y

retinopathy of prematurity45
Retinopathy of Prematurity

ftp://ftp.nei.nih.gov/eye_exam/exam12_150.tif

  • Successful treatment for ROP requires early detection and timely laser therapy by skilled practitioners
  • Despite improvements in detection and treatment, ROP remains a leading cause of lifelong visual impairment among children in developed countries
vitamin a deficiency
Vitamin A deficiency

http://motherchildnutrition.org/malnutrition/images/xerophthalmia.jpg

http://motherchildnutrition.org/malnutrition/images/xerophthalmia02.jpg

vitamin a deficiency47
Vitamin A deficiency
  • Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can result in Xerophthalmia (severe dryness and scarring of the eye), corneal ulceration and perforation (keratomalacia) and night blindness
  • VAD is the single most important cause of childhood blindness in developing countries.
  • An estimated 2.8 million preschool-age children are at risk of blindness from VAD
  • Vitamin A supplements at a cost of only 5 US cents a dose, can reduce child mortality by up to 34% in areas where Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem

http://www.who.int/blindness/causes/priority/en/index4.html

latin america and the caribbean
Latin America and the Caribbean
  • In Latin America and the Caribbean, cataract (opacification of the lens) is the single most important cause of blindness; cataract surgery has been shown to be one of the most cost effective interventions of all health care interventions

http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/82/11/en/844.pdf

Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Etya'ale D, Kocur I, Pararajasegaram R, Pokharel GP, Mariotti SP. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bull World Health Organ. 2004 Nov;82(11):844-51. Epub 2004 Dec 14.

africa
Africa
  • Blindnessprevalence rates vary widely but the evidence suggests that approximately 1% of Africans are blind.
  • This region is home to approximately 7.1 of the world’s 38 million blind.
  • Approximately half the blindness in Africa is due to cataract.
  • Although trachoma has been declining in many areas of the world, it still remains the second leading cause of blindness in Africa.

http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/82/11/en/844.pdf

Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Etya'ale D, Kocur I, Pararajasegaram R, Pokharel GP, Mariotti SP. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bull World Health Organ. 2004 Nov;82(11):844-51. Epub 2004 Dec 14.

north america and western europe
North America and Western Europe
  • Most adult visual impairment in North America and Western Europe is related to age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. While both of these conditions are subject to treatment, neither can be cured.

http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/82/11/en/844.pdf

Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Etya'ale D, Kocur I, Pararajasegaram R, Pokharel GP, Mariotti SP. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bull World Health Organ. 2004 Nov;82(11):844-51. Epub 2004 Dec 14.

blindness challenges in developing countries
Blindness challenges in developing countries

http://www.who.int/entity/blindness/causes/ChildhBlind%2096.JPG

  • Blindness is particularly devastating in the developing world where it has a profound impact on the quality of life for the blind person and his or her community.
  • The majority of blind people in developing countries live in remote areas, while most of the eye care providers and hospitals are situated in the cities.
  • Women and children face extra challenges, including limited access to financial resources and health information, fewer travel options, and less social support in seeking care.

http://www.cureblindness.org/world-blindness

blindness in the developing world
Blindness in the developing world

http://www.who.int/entity/apoc/media/onchocerciasis_blindness_thumb.jpg

  • 90% of blind people in the developing world can not work.
  • 50% report a reduced of social status and decision-making authority.
  • Blind people in the developing world are subject to low employment, inadequate housing, substandard health care, barriers to education, cultural activities, sports and recreation
  • Life expectancy is half or less than age matched sighted individuals

http://www.cureblindness.org/world-blindness/

education
Education
  • Approximately 90% of visually impaired children in low-income countries are deprived of an education. Lack of infrastructure, affordable health care, production of accessible and suitable school materials and qualified teachers prevent visually impaired children from attending school

http://www.dit.ie/mozambique-eyecare/developmentandeyecare/

http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2008/11/21/Blind-children.jpg

vision 2020
VISION 2020
  • VISION 2020 is the global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness, a joint program of the World Health Organization (WHO)and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) with an international membership of NGOs, professional associations, eye care institutions and corporations.

http://vision2020.org/main.cfm

slide55

The Guerrilla Eye Service of the UPMC Eye Center is dedicated to eliminating barriers to eye care for patients in the Western Pennsylvania area.http://www.ophed.com/group/2205

references
References
  • http://www.who.int/topics/blindness/en/
  • http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/pr79/en/http://whqlibdoc.who.int/bulletin/2001/issue3/79(3)227-232.pdf
  • http://www.who.int/blindness/en/index.html
  • http://www.nature.com/eye/journal/v19/n10/full/6701973a.html
  • http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/index.html
  • http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/vision/04_en.html
  • http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/blindness/blindness_facts/en/index7.html
  • http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/82/11/en/844.pdf
references58
References
  • http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/
  • http://www.who.int/bulletin/archives/79(3)227.pdf
  • http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD001860/frame.html
  • http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241500722_eng.pdf
  • http://www.who.int/blindness/causes/priority/en/index4.html
  • http://www.cureblindness.org/world-blindness
  • http://www.vision2020.org/main.cfm
  • http://www.dit.ie/mozambique-eyecare/developmentandeyecare/
  • http://vision2020.org/main.cfm
references59
References
  • Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Etya'ale D, Kocur I, Pararajasegaram R, Pokharel GP, Mariotti SP. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bull World Health Organ. 2004 Nov;82(11):844-51. Epub 2004 Dec 14.
  • Saint André A, Blackwell NM, Hall LR, Hoerauf A, Brattig NW, Volkmann L, Taylor MJ, Ford L, Hise AG, Lass JH, Diaconu E, Pearlman E. The role of endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in the pathogenesis of river blindness. Science. 2002 Mar 8;295(5561):1892-5
  • Tasman, Duane's Ophthalmology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ( 2005)
  • Yanoff, Duker, Augsburger Ophthalmology, Mosby 2003.