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IB Cardiovascular Disease. IB SEHS. Coronary Circulation. An artery becomes damaged and blocked with cholesterol and other material (the formation of atherosclerotic plaque). Atherosclerosis. Cigarette smoking High blood pressure (hypertension) High cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol

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IB Cardiovascular Disease

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    1. IB Cardiovascular Disease IB SEHS

    2. Coronary Circulation

    3. An artery becomes damaged and blocked with cholesterol and other material (the formation of atherosclerotic plaque) Atherosclerosis

    4. Cigarette smoking • High blood pressure (hypertension) • High cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol • Low HDL-cholesterol • Diabetes • Obesity • Physical inactivity • Age • Gender • Ethnicity • Family history Major Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

    5. ESSAY How do you feel about animal experimentation as part of the process of uncovering the cause of disease in humans and in the development of new pharmacological treatments? Animal Experimentation

    6. Death % by Ethnicity

    7. Inactive people are at higher risk for: • High blood pressure • Obesity • Type 2 diabetes • Low HDL-cholesterol A Lifestyle of Physical Inactivity Increases the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    8. An excess of body fat, but in reality obesity is determined using indirect measurements of body fat (i.e. BMI, waist girth) • BMI is the most widely used method of measuring obesity, yet its limitations as a measure of “fatness” are well known • Waist girth values that define abdominal obesity are gender and ethnicity specific and reflect different levels of disease risk in obesity Obesity

    9. Associated with social stigmatization and bullying • Leads to earlier issues with hypokinetic diseases Childhood Obesity

    10. Computed tomography (CT scan) • MRI • Dual energy x-ray (DXA) • These tests are expensive and expose the individual to radiation Sophisticated Imaging Techniques to Measure Obesity

    11. Cardiovascular disease • Hypertension • Type 2 diabetes • Osteoarthritis • Respiratory problems • Some cancers: • Bowel cancer • Breast cancer Health Consequences of Obesity

    12. Affected mainly by food intake, resting metabolic rate and physical activity • Eat more calories than you burn, you gain weight • Eat fewer calories than you burn, you lose weight Energy Balance

    13. Hormones are produced by the stomach and small intestine after eating and by adipose tissue (leptin). These pass to an appetite control center in the brain that regulates feelings of hunger and satiety. Chemicals that Affect Appetite Regulation

    14. First discovered in mice and led to the expectation that obesity could be “cured”. Later discoveries in humans have shown that this initial expectation was misplaced. • This is a good example of where scientific discoveries can sometimes be taken out of context by the media and lead to false hope by individuals affected by certain conditions. Leptin