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Cardiovascular Disease. Chapter 9. Causes of Death (2003). Types of Cardiovascular Disease. Hypertension 50,000,000. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) 12,400,000. Angina pectoris 6,400,000. Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack) 7,300,000. Cerebral Vascular Accident (Stroke) 4,500,000.

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Presentation Transcript
types of cardiovascular disease
Types of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Hypertension
    • 50,000,000.
  • Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
    • 12,400,000.
  • Angina pectoris
    • 6,400,000.
  • Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)
    • 7,300,000.
  • Cerebral Vascular Accident (Stroke)
    • 4,500,000.
slide4

Blood Pressure

Systolic

Category

Diastolic

Optimal

<120

<80

Normal

<130

<85

High Normal

85-89

130-139

slide5

Classifications of Hypertension

Systolic

Diastolic

Mild (1)

140-159

90-99

Moderate (2)

160-179

100-109

Severe (3)

180-209

110-119

Very Severe (4)

>

210

>

120

types of hypertension
Types of Hypertension
  • Essential Hypertension – No known cause.
    • Age
    • Weight
    • Ancestry
    • Sodium intake
    • Smoking
  • Secondary Hypertension – Secondary to other diseases. Renal, Endocrine
consequences of hbp
Consequences of HBP
  • Stroke
  • Angina
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Heart failure
  • Renal dysfunction
  • Blindness
  • Death from a cardiovascular cause
coronary artery disease
Coronary Artery Disease
  • Disease of the arteries supplying blood to the heart resulting from:
    • Arteriosclerosis
    • Atherosclerosis
arteriosclerosis
Arteriosclerosis
  • Hardening of the arterial walls.
  • Reduces elasticity of arteries
  • Increases stress on heart
atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
  • The formation of atheromatous plaques resulting in restricted blood flow
    • Deposits of cholesterol, other fats, connective tissue, and muscle tissue from healing of arterial damage
in a nutshell
In a Nutshell
  • We need special molecules to transport fats (lipids) – LDL (bad) HDL (good)
  • LDL infiltrate arterial wall and oxidize (change)
  • Changed LDL’s alter wall to express “adhesion molecule.”
  • Adhesion molecules attract macrophages
  • Macrophages eat LDLs --- Foam Cells
  • Cap forms over this
  • Foam cell secrete inflammatory chemicals
  • Cap breaks and clots form.
  • Debris the sticks and builds
consequences of cad
Consequences of CAD
  • HBP
  • Angina Pectoris
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke
  • Conditions related to the above
myocardial infarction
Myocardial Infarction
  • Cardiac necrosis resulting from ischemia (blocked blood flow)
  • Necrotic tissue does not regenerate
  • Consequences related to amount of necrosis
  • Slightly more than half of those with first MI survive
consequences of mi
Consequences of MI
  • Impaired cardiac function
    • Limits physical ability
  • Death
  • Increased risk for future attacks
cerebrovascular accident
Cerebrovascular Accident
  • Decreased blood supply to a part of the brain
  • Caused by rupture , occlusion, or stenosis of the blood vessels
  • Onset may be sudden or gradual
  • Symptoms and patient problems depend on location and size of area of brain with reduced or absent blood supply
  • Common vs. Hemorrhagic
  • Third leading cause of death
stroke rate by state per 100 000
Stroke Rate by State (per 100,000)
  • 1  South Carolina  81.4
  • 2  North Carolina  78.5
  • 2  Tennessee  78.5
  • 4  Arkansas  77.2
  • 5  Georgia  74.8
  • 6  Mississippi  74
  • 7  Oregon  71.6
  • 8  Alabama  71.5
  • 8  Indiana  71.5
  • 10  Oklahoma  69.5
  • 11  Washington  68.7
  • 41  North Dakota  55.5
  • 42  Vermont  54.9
  • 43  Arizona  53.8
  • 44  Massachusetts  51.5
  • 45  Connecticut  51.4
  • 46  New Mexico  50.6
  • 47  Florida  49.6
  • 48  New Jersey  49
  • 49  Rhode Island  45.6
  • 50  DColumbia  44.4
  • 51  New York  40.9
common stroke
Common Stroke
  • Stoke resulting from vascular blockage
    • Thrombosis
      • Blockage due to build-up
    • Embolus
      • Build-up (clot) breaks away and travels until it block cerebral vessel
hemorrhagic stroke
Hemorrhagic Stroke
  • CVA secondary to bleeding
    • Rupture
    • Aneurysm
cva signs and symptoms
CVASigns and Symptoms
  • Altered LOC
  • Change in mental status
  • Decreased attention span
  • Decreased ability to think and reason
  • Difficulty following simple directions
  • Communication; motor and sensory aphasia difficulty with reading ,writing, speaking, or understanding
  • Bowel and bladder dysfunction retention impaction or incontinence
cva signs and symptoms1
CVASigns and Symptoms
  • Seizures
  • Limited motor function; paralysis, dysphgia, weakness , hemiplegia, loss of function or contractures
  • Loss of sensation/ perception
  • Headaches and syncope
  • Loss of temp regulation elevated TPR and BP
  • Absent of gag reflex ( aspiration)
  • Unusual emotional responses; depression, anxiety, anger, verbal outburst, and crying: emotional lability
  • Problems related with immobility