The role of law in regulating offshore energy production and securing energy supply
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The role of law in regulating offshore energy production and securing energy supply Hannah Katharina Müller, LL.M. Groningen Centre of Energy Law University of Groningen . Conventional energy sources are limited Security of Supply Increase the share of renewable energy sources. Background.

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The role of law in regulating offshore energy production and securing energy supplyHannah Katharina Müller, LL.M.Groningen Centre of Energy LawUniversity of Groningen



Adequate legal framework

Basics international law of the sea securing energy supply

Development offshore oil and gas exploitation

Offshore wind energy

European offshore grid?

Adequate legal framework?

History international law

  • Truman Proclamation securing energy supply

  • 1958 Geneva Conventions

    • Continental Shelf

  • 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

    • EEZ

History International Law

Basic legal framework

  • Territorial securing energy supplysea

    • Full jurisdiction, all laws apply

  • Continental Shelf

    • Sovereign rights regarding offshore energy exploitation

  • Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    • Sovereign rights for economic exploitation

  • Freedom of other states, but national focus

Basic legal framework

Offshore oil and gas in europe

  • How to regulate? securing energy supply

  • All North Sea states chose a licensing regime

  • Landing obligation

  • Hydrocarbon Licensing Directive

    • First step towards an internal market

Offshore oil and gas in Europe

Offshore wind in the north sea

Offshore wind in the North Sea

Offshore infrastructure

  • How to bring energy to demand centres? securing energy supply

  • Who is responsible for cables connecting offshore wind farms to shore?

    • NL: part of the installation, WF developer

    • UK: tendered to OFTO

    • DE: national TSO

  • Lack of infrastructure

Offshore infrastructure

Go beyond current approach

Go beyond current approach?

Example exploitation of energy

Eu law

  • National RES targets exploitation of energy

  • National Support Schemes

    • Example Cobra

    • Recent development: Case C-573/12

EU Law


A common (European or regional) approach would facilitate a more efficient connection and the security of supply

Under current legal regimes, an offshore grid will not come into existence

The North Sea States have to become active!


Thank your for your attention h k muller@rug nl

Thank your for your attention. more efficient connection and the security of [email protected]