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Chapter 20: The Spine

Chapter 20: The Spine

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Chapter 20: The Spine

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  1. Chapter 20: The Spine

  2. Anatomy of the Spine

  3. Ligaments and Vertebral Discs

  4. Muscular Anatomy

  5. Neurological Anatomy

  6. Prevention of Injuries to the Spine • Cervical Spine • Muscle Strengthening • Muscles of the neck resist hyperflexion, hyperextension and rotational forces • Prior to impact the athlete should brace by “bulling” the neck (isometric contraction of neck and shoulder muscles) • Exercises can be used to strengthen the neck • Range of Motion • Must have full ROM to prevent injury • improved through stretching exercises

  7. Prevention of Injuries to the Spine • Using Correct Technique • Athletes should be taught and use correct technique to reduce the likelihood of cervical spine injuries • Avoid using head as a weapon • Spearing in football, diving into shallow water • Lumbar Spine • Avoid Stress • Avoid unnecessary stresses and strains of daily living • Avoid postures and positions that can cause injury • Strength and Flexibility • Basic conditioning should emphasize trunk flexibility • Spinal and Core strength should be stressed in order to maintain proper alignment

  8. Prevention of Injuries to the Spine • Using Correct Lifting Techniques • Weight lifters can minimize injury of the lumbar spine by using proper technique • Incorporation of appropriate breathing techniques can also help to stabilize the spine • Weight belts can be useful in providing stabilization • Use spotters when lifting • Core Stabilization • Core stabilization, dynamic abdominal bracing and maintaining neutral position can be used to increase lumbo-pelvic-hip stability • Increased stability helps the athlete maintain the spine and pelvis in a comfortable and acceptable mechanical position (prevents microtrauma)

  9. Assessment of the Spine • History • Mechanism of injury (rule out spinal cord injury) • What happened? Did you hit someone or did someone hit you? Did you lose consciousness • Pain in your neck? Numbness, tingling, burning? • Can you move your ankles and toes? • Do you have equal strength in both hands • Positive responses to any of these questions will necessitate extreme caution when the athlete is moved

  10. Assessment of the Spine • Other general questions • Where is the pain and what kind of pain are you experiencing? • What were you doing when the pain started? • Did the pain begin immediately and how long have you had it? • Positions or movements that increase/decrease pain? • Past history of back pain • Sleep position and patterns, seated positions and postures

  11. Observations Body type Postural alignments and asymmetries should be observed from all views Assess height differences between anatomical landmarks Assessment of the Spine

  12. Assessment of the Spine • Palpation • Should be performed with athlete prone • Head and neck should be slightly flexed, pillow under hips if suffering from low back pain • Spinous and transverse processes of each vertebrae should be palpated along with sacrum and coccyx • Muscles should be palpated bilaterally • Be aware of the possibility of referred pain

  13. Assessment of the Spine • Special Tests • Test for lumbar spine should be performed standing, sitting, supine, side-lying and prone • Assess levels of pain and motion restriction during the following tests • Forward and backward bending • Side-bending and rotation

  14. Straight Leg Raises Applies pressure to SI joint and may indicate problems with sciatic nerve, SI joint or lumbar spine SLR Test

  15. SI Compression and Distraction Tests • Used for pathologies involving the SI joint DistractionCompression

  16. Brachial Plexus Traction/Compression Test

  17. Hoover Test Athlete Position:  Supine Athletic Trainer Position:  Supporting the ankle of each leg while standing at athlete’s feet. Procedure:  Athlete is asked to perform a unilateral straight leg raise actively on the involved extremity. Test is positive if:  The athlete does not push down on the uninvolved leg or athlete does not attempt this maneuver.  Implications:  The athlete is malingering.

  18. Faber’s Test FABER’S : Flexion Abduction External Rotation Assess SI joint pathology

  19. Recognition and Management of Specific Injuries and Conditions

  20. Cervical Spine Injuries • Cervical Fractures • Cause of Injury • Generally an axial load w/ some degree of cervical flexion • Addition of rotation may result in dislocation • Signs of Injury • Neck point tenderness, restricted motion, cervical muscle spasm, cervical pain, pain in the chest and extremities, numbness in the trunk and or limbs, weakness in the trunk and/or limbs, loss of bladder and bowel control • Care • Treat like an unconscious athlete until otherwise ruled out - use extreme care • Spine Board and transport

  21. Cervical Fracture and Dislocation

  22. Cervical Spine Injuries • Cervical Dislocation • Cause of Injury • Usually the result of violent flexion and rotation of the head • Signs of Injury • Considerable pain, numbness, weakness, or paralysis • Unilateral dislocation causes the head to be tilted toward the dislocated side with extreme muscle tightness on the elongated side • Care • Extreme care must be used - more likely to cause spinal cord injury than a fracture

  23. Cervical Spine Injuries • Acute Strains of the Neck and Upper Back • Cause of Injury • Sudden turn of the head, forced flexion, extension or rotation • Generally involves upper trapezius • Signs of Injury • Localized pain and point tenderness, restricted motion, reluctance to move the neck in any direction • Care • RICE and application of a cervical collar in severe cases • Follow-up care will involve ROM exercises, isometrics which progress to a full isotonic strengthening program, cryotherapy and superficial thermotherapy, analgesic medications

  24. Cervical Spine Injuries • Cervical Sprain (Whiplash) • Cause of Injury • Generally the same mechanism as a strain, just move violent • Involves a snapping of the head and neck • Signs of Injury • Similar signs and symptoms to a strain - however, they last longer • Tenderness over the transverse and spinous processes • Pain will usually arise the day after the trauma (result of muscle spasm) • Management • Rule out fracture, dislocation, disk injury or cord injury • RICE for first 48-72 hours, possibly bed rest if severe enough • Analgesics and NSAID’s, mechanical traction

  25. Cervical Spine Injuries • Acute Torticollis • Cause of Injury • Pain on one side of the neck upon wakening • Result of synovial capsule impingement w/in a facet • Signs of Injury • Palpable point tenderness and muscle spasm, restricted ROM, muscle guarding, • Care • Variety of techniques including traction, superficial heat and cold treatments, NSAID’s • Use of a soft collar can be helpful as well • May last 2-3 days • Gradual strengthening and stretching exercises should be utilized for neck and shoulders for prevention

  26. Cervical Spine Injuries • Pinched Nerve (Brachial Plexus Injury) • Cause of Injury • Result of stretching or compression of the brachial plexus • Referred to as stinger or burner • Signs of Injury • Burning sensation, numbness and tingling as well as pain extending from the shoulder into the hand • Some loss of function of the arm and hand for several minutes • Symptoms rarely persist for several days • Repeated injury can result in neuritis, muscular atrophy, and permanent damage • Care • Return to activity once S&S have returned to normal • Strengthening and stretching program • Padding to limit neck ROM during impact

  27. Lumbar Spine Conditions

  28. Lumbar Spine Conditions • Low Back Pain • Cause of Injury • Congenital/biomechanical anomalies • Mechanical defects of the spine (posture, obesity and body mechanics) • Back trauma • Recurrent and chronic low back pain • Signs of Injury • Pain, possible weakness, antalgic gait, ligament sprain, muscle strains and bony defects • Neurological signs and symptoms if it becomes disk related • Care • Correct alignments and body mechanics (better posture, lifting techniques, lose weight, etc) • Strengthening and stretching – avoid unnecessary stresses and strains associated with daily living

  29. Lumbar Spine Conditions • Lumbar Vertebrae Fracture and Dislocation • Cause • Compression fractures or fracture of the spinous or transverse processes • Compression fractures are usually the result of trunk hyperflexion or falling from a height • Fractures of the processes are generally the result of a direct blow • Stress from improper lifting or too much weight • Dislocations tend to be rare

  30. Lumbar Fractures

  31. Signs of Injury Compression fractures will require X-rays for detection Point tenderness over the affected area Palpable defects over the spinous and transverse processes Localized swelling and guarding Care X-ray and physician referral Transport with extreme caution and care to minimize movement of the segments Utilize a spine board Lumbar Spine Conditions

  32. Lumbar Spine Conditions • Low Back Muscle Strain • Cause of Injury • Sudden extension contraction overload generally in conjunction w/ some type of rotation • Chronic strain associated with posture and mechanics • Signs of Injury • Pain may be diffuse or localized; pain w/ active extension and passive flexion • Care • RICE to decrease spasm; followed by a graduated stretching and strengthening program • Elastic wrap/back brace may be useful for support and compression • Complete bed rest may be necessary if it is severe enough • NSAID’s

  33. Lumbar Spine Conditions • Lumbar Strains • Cause of Injury • Forward bending and twisting can cause injury • Chronic or repetitive in nature • Improper lifting techniques • Signs of Injury • Localized pain lateral to the spinous process • Pain becomes sharper w/ certain movements or postures • Care • RICE, joint mobes, strengthening for abdominals, stretching in all directions • Trunk stabilization exercises • Braces should be worn early to provide support • Will require time for healing

  34. Lumbar Spine Conditions • Back Contusions • Cause of Injury • Significant impact or direct blow to the back • Signs of Injury • Pain, swelling, discoloration, muscle spasm and point tenderness • Management • RICE for the first 72 hours • Ice massage combined with gradual stretching • Recovery generally last 2 days to 2 weeks

  35. Lumbar Spine Conditions • Sciatica • Cause of Injury • Inflammatory condition of the sciatic nerve • Nerve is vulnerable to torsion or direct blows that place abnormal amounts of stretching or pressure on nerve • Signs of Injury • Arises abruptly or gradually; produces sharp shooting pain, tingling and numbness • Sensitive to palpation with straight leg raises intensifying the pain • Care • Rest is essential acutely – recovery = 2-3 weeks • Treat the cause of inflammation; traction if disk protrusion is suspected; NSAID’s

  36. Sciatica / Sciatica Nerves

  37. Lumbar Spine Conditions • Herniated Disk • Cause of Injury • Caused by abnormal stresses and degeneration due to use (forward bending and twisting) • Improper lifting techiques • Over weight

  38. Lumbar Spine Conditions • Signs of Injury • Centrally located pain that radiate unilaterally in dermatomal pattern • Symptoms are worse in the morning • Onset is sudden or gradual, pain may increase after the athlete sits and then tries to resume activity • Forward bending and sitting increase pain, while back extension reduces pain • Straight leg raise to 30 degrees is painful • Care • Rest and ice for pain management • Extension exercises may be comfortable • Core stabilization exercises should be integrated as athlete improves

  39. Lumbar Spine Conditions • Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis • Cause of Injury • Spondylolysis refers to degeneration of the vertebrae due to congenital weakness (stress fracture results) • Slipping of one vertebrae above or below another is referred to as spondylolisthesis and is often associated with a spondylolysis • Signs of Injury • Pain and persistent aching, low back stiffness with increased pain after activity • Frequent need to change position or “pop” back to reduce pain • Localized tenderness to one segment

  40. Spondylolysis

  41. Spondylolisthesis

  42. Lumbar Spine Conditions • Care • Bracing and occasionally bed rest for 1-3 days will help to reduce pain • Major focus should be on exercises directed as controlling or stabilizing hypermobile segments • Progressive trunk strengthening, dynamic core strengthening, concentration on abdominal work • Braces can also be helpful during high level activities • Increased susceptibility to lumbar strains and sprains and thus vigorous activity may need to be limited

  43. Sacroiliac and Coccyx Injuries • Sacroiliac Sprain • Cause of Injury • Result of twisting with both feet on the ground, stumbles forward, falls backward, steps too far down, heavy landings on one leg, bends forward with knees locked during lifting • Signs of Injury • Palpable pain and tenderness over the joint, medial to the PSIS w/ some muscle guarding • Pelvic asymmetries are possible

  44. Care Ice can be used to reduce pain Bracing can be helpful in acute sprains Strengthening exercises should be used to stabilize the joints Sacroiliac and Coccyx Injuries

  45. Sacroiliac and Coccyx Injuries • Coccyx Injuries • Cause of Injury • Generally the result of a direct impact which may be caused by forcibly sitting down, falling, or being kicked by an opponent • Signs of Injury • Pain is often prolonged and at times chronic • Tenderness over the bone and pain with sitting • Care • Analgesics and a ring seat to relieve pressure while sitting • Pain from a fractured coccyx could last months • May require protective padding to prevent further injury