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NATO Operations in Afghanistan

NATO Operations in Afghanistan. Steven Mirr Director, Defense Operations US Mission to NATO. ISAF Mission. Mission: Assist the Afghan government to establish and maintain security; Facilitate the development of Afghan government structures; Extend Afghan government control;

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NATO Operations in Afghanistan

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  1. NATO Operations in Afghanistan Steven Mirr Director, Defense Operations US Mission to NATO

  2. ISAF Mission Mission: • Assist the Afghan government to establish and maintain security; • Facilitate the development of Afghan government structures; • Extend Afghan government control; • Assist reconstruction and humanitarian efforts Desired Military End-state: • Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) are able to provide security and sustain stability in Afghanistan without NATO support

  3. Political Overview • Lack of self confidence • Regional, tribal, ethnic and sectarian groupings • Weak state structure • Loose link between Central and Regional Governments • Lack of experience & professionalism • Underlying dynamic of the national economy is the drug trade

  4. Threat Assessment • Against greater government authority: • Lack of basic security mechanisms • Criminality and lawlessness • Corruption • Porous borders • Opposing militant forces • Illegal narcotics • Rule of law is slowly being imposed

  5. ISAF Troop Contributing Nations Jordan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania 152 94 261 9 1,718 115 418 1,090 7 539 Estonia Finland France FYROM Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy 117 104 1,442 131 3,181 60 223 9 7 2,874 Albania Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark 118 1055 3 44 365 370 2,526 234 154 643 Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States TOTAL: 68 48 730 342 2 626 229 8,296 17,250 45,655 As of Jan 08

  6. ISAF Overview RC N Lead nation RC W Lead nation RC E Lead nation RC C Lead nation LEGEND Provincial Capital City Provincial Reconstruction Team RC North RC West RC South RC East RC S Lead nation RC Capital Total Forces ~46 ,000

  7. Security Sector Reform Counter Narcotics United Kingdom Judicial Reform Italy Disarmament Of Illegally Armed Groups (DIAG) Japan Train the Afghan National Army United States Train Police Forces Germany Rebuilding Afghanistan Afghan Compact 2006 SECURITY SECTOR REFORM INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY UNAMA-NGOs ISAF OEF

  8. Security Challenges • Nations are not meeting the capability requirements specified in the Combined Joint Statement of Requirements (CJSOR) • Key deficiencies include Rotary Wing Lift, Manoeuvre Forces and Operational Mentor & Liaison Teams (OMLTs) • Operational capabilities of some individual units are limited by national caveats or other national constraints

  9. Afghan National Security Forces • Afghan National Army (ANA) • One of the success stories in the rebuilding of Afghanistan’s government institutions • Sustained NATO support required • Operational Mentor & Liaison Teams (OMLT) • Number one way for NATO to support the development of the Afghan National Police (ANP)

  10. Afghan National Army • ANA continues to grow in capacity as well as capability • Growth: ANA increased from 25,000 to 37,000 (48% increase) • Experience: 201ST and 203RD Corps have the ability to plan operations and have conducted Afghan led operations • Explosives Ordnance Disposal (EOD): ANA has started basic EOD and counter-IED training • Commandos: (began training 6 months ago) • 201ST Kandak progressed to no notice operational employment • 203RD Kandak demonstrated operational capability in December 07 • ANA Air Corps • Increased flight time from 100 hrs/month to 140 hrs/month • Flew as an integrated serial within the CJTF-82 Aviation TF • Performed flood relief missions (1200+ saves)

  11. Afghan National Police Provincial Training Center Regional Training Center • Emerging as a trusted national security institution • Focused District Development: improving ANP performance district-by-district, developing district-level capabilities, strengthening command linkages, enabling the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA) to project success

  12. RC-East Security Operations 2006 2007 24-month average RC-East Border Incidents in NE ; in SE • Expanded Presence: A 50% growth in security forces in Regional Command-East resulted in a corresponding 39.5% increase in enemy contacts; mostly harassing fires • An increased number of bases and posts along known insurgent support areas and infiltration routes • A greater number of Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) expanding into additional areas • An increase in the number of operations more rapidly separates the enemy from the populace • Border Incidents: Insurgents are focusing moreon gains and expansion opportunities in Pakistan • Significant decrease over Nov-Dec • 42% below same time period in 2006 • Suicide IEDs (SIED): Insurgents focused more on Pakistan resulting in a decrease in SIEDs in RC-E • SIEDs in Pakistan 2006 (5); in 2007 (60) • SIEDs in RC-E Apr-Dec 2006 (52); Apr-Dec 2007 (50) • Key Insurgent Leaders targeted: Strengthened Coalition Forces / Afghan partnerships and reduced enemy’s ability to facilitate weapons, conduct IED attacks, and coordinate support • 112 Key Insurgent Leaders removed from the insurgent network in 2007; (82 in 2006) • Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) participated, planned, or led many of these operations • Security: Despite an increase in enemy activity, citizens feel safe to conduct daily activities, move freely, pursue work and education, and participate in civic activities • Increase in traffic: Andar (Hwy 1) Apr-May avg 100 vehicles per month; now 500 vehicles per day • Afghans are attending Shuras, Humanitarian Assistance distribution, medical engagements, responding to calls for workers, using Government Centers; children are attending school

  13. Afghan Development Strategy • Afghan National Development Strategy (ANDS) • Currently exists in interim form (I-ANDS) • Based on Sub-national consultations • Needs to be sequenced and resourced • National Priority Programmes (NPP) • Delivers against I-ANDS targets • Policy Action Group (PAG) • Prioritises needs, link to donors • Endorse Afghan Development Zones (ADZs) • UNAMA - coordination IC effort

  14. Afghan Development Zones RC(W) and RC(N) ADZs seeking PAG approval Badakhshan Balkh Kunduz Faryab Qala-i Now Parwan RC(E) PAG Approved 6 Dec 06 Jalalabad Surobi Herat Ghazni / Tri-Cities Farah Tarin Kowt Qalat Lashkar Gah Kandahar Endorsed Await Policy Action Group (PAG) approval RC(S) PAG Approved 30 Aug 06

  15. The Comprehensive Approach Kajaki Dam $300M ,12 month hydro-power project Sangin-Gereshk $3.7m ALP & community outreach Route 611 DuriJunc-Sangin Rd AFG sub-contractors Highway 1 Duri Junction Road construction camp

  16. Provincial Reconstruction Teams • Primary tool for stability operations • Assisting expansion of Afghan governance • Must promote an Afghan ownership of projects • ‘One size fits all’ PRT neither appropriate nor possible

  17. ISAF PRT Tasks • Improve the security environment for the Afghan people through dialogue with provincial leaders and confidence building activities and mitigating likely areas of conflict. • Monitor, assess, advise on and support security sector reform activities, particularly Afghan National Army and police training, in close co-ordination with UNAMA, security sector reform lead-nations and bilateral programmes. • Facilitate the development of effective provincial governance, building capacity to plan, prioritise and manage programmes and major events. • Encourage and facilitate the work of provincial development committees, and other committees that may emerge, for example on security, and provincial bodies, such as joint coordination centres. • Advise on the coordination of Afghan security forces/agencies in a province. • Provide a visible presence in assigned areas of operation, monitoring and assessing the military and civil situations within those areas. • Act as the development reconnaissance force for the reconstruction effort, offering a coherent picture of needs to the ISAF chain of command, provincial authorities and those assisting redevelopment. • Assist the international community with the process of reform and strengthening of civil administration. • Help to facilitate information sharing between the Afghan government and civil agencies, on their request. • Support humanitarian assistance and reconstruction activities when requested, within means and capabilities.

  18. Counter Narcotics • President Karzai: “Either we destroy poppy, or it will destroy Afghanistan” • Afghanistan supplies 93% of the world’s illicit opium • Majority of poppy cultivation in the south • Narcotics fund insurgency, insurgents help preserve the drug trade

  19. Progress in Afghanistan

  20. The Way Ahead for ISAF • Build upon Provincial Reconstruction Team success at local levels • Increase support to Afghan National Army / Security Forces • Increased support to Afghan Counter Narcotics efforts • Support regional stability • Assist Afghan Government implementation of comprehensive, nationwide development program

  21. Questions?

  22. Backup Slides

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