NATO • Function: What is NATO? • History: NATO Enlargement • Structure: Policy and Decision Making • Missions: Peace Support and Crisis • Combating New Threats and Developing New Capabilities • Partner Countries
NATO Military Mission • Article 5 (Collective Defense) • Non- Article 5 (crisis response operations) • Consolation and Cooperation
NATO • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an alliance of 28 countries from North America and Europe devoted to achieving the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on April 4th 1949. • NATO buffers the Allies’ common values of democracy, individual liberty, the rule of law and the peaceful resolution of disputes, and promotes these values throughout the Euro-Atlantic area.
Function • NATO provides a forum in which the United States, Canada and European countries can communicate together on security issues of common concern and take joint action in addressing them. • Cooperation with non-NATO countries are helping to overcome the divisions of the Cold War era and to extend the security and stability well beyond NATO borders.
History • Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain Speech” (1946) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvax5VUvjWQ • The Marshall Plan (1947) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9oaYL8gjTM4 • The Truman Doctrine ( 1947) http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/video/truman_21.html#v178 • The Berlin Airlift (1948) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOsqxp1ZDts
The Washington Treaty 1949 • http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm • Washington D.C. - 4 April 1949 • The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments.They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. They seek to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlantic area.They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defence and for the preservation of peace and security. They therefore agree to this North Atlantic Treaty :
Enlargement • Any European country in a position to undertake the commitments and obligations of membership, and contribute to security in the Euro-Atlantic area, may join NATO. • Adding Croatia and Albania at the Bucharest Summit 2008
Enlargement • Since 1949, NATO’s membership has increased from 12 to 28 countries through six rounds of enlargement.
Enlargement • http://www.youtube.com/user/NATOCOMMUNITY?ob=0&feature=results_main • http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=50312234-C985-4831-AD92-4F2B4246D39D&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
28 Member Countries Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Spain Turkey United Kingdom United States Latvia Albania Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Rep Denmark Estonia France Slovenia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy
EU member only NATO member only member of both
Security Tasks • Collective Defense • Strategic Concept • Comprehensive Political Guidance
Collective Defense • NATO contributes to preserving the peace, security and territorial integrity of Alliance member states • Should aggression occur, or be considered imminent, NATO will take all military measures within its capability and authority to: 1. Maintain the integrity of Allied Territory 2. Safeguard freedom of the seas and economic lifelines 3. Preserve or restore the security of the area of responsibility
Article’s 5 and 6Collective Defense • “An armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all..” • “An armed attack on one or more is deemed to include an armed attack on the: • Territory of any of the parties in Europe or North America • On the forces, vessels or aircraft of any of the parties in or over these territories”
Strategic Concept • An official document that outlines NATO’s enduring purpose and nature and its fundamental security tasks. • It identifies the central features of the new security environment, specifies the elements of the Alliance’s approach to security and provides guidelines for the further adaptation of its military forces.
Comprehensive Political Guidance • A major policy document that sets out the framework and priorities for all Alliance capability issues, planning disciplines and intelligence for the next 10 to 15 years.
Consensus Decision Making • A decision reached by consensus is an agreement reached by common consent, a decision that is accepted by each member country. • This means that when a "NATO decision" is announced, it is the expression of the collective will of all the sovereign states that are members of the Alliance
Consensus Decision- making • There is no voting • Consultations take place until a decision that is acceptable to all is reached • Sometimes member countries agree to disagree on an issue. • This negotiation process is rapid since members consult each other on a regular basis and therefore often know and understand each other's positions in advance.
Structure • Civilian • NATO Headquarters: • Permanent Representatives and National delegations • International Staff 2. Military • Organizations http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/structure.htm
The North Atlantic Council • http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_49763.htm? • The principal political decision-making body • It provides a forum for wide-ranging consultation between members on all issues affecting their peace and security.
NATO is deepening and broadening its cooperation with its 28 partner countries as well as Russia, Ukraine, its Mediterranean partners, the broader Middle East region, and other international organizations. It is developing a strategic partnership with the European Union. • http://www.natochannel.tv/
Partners • http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/51288.htm • http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_51105.htm
Who is who??? • The current NATO Secretary General is Anders Rasmussen. • Supreme Allied Commander Transformation (SACT), French Air Force General • Jean-Paul Palomeros
Missions • At the 2002 NATO Summit in Prague, Allies launched a modernization process designated to ensure that NATO can effectively deal with 21st century threats. • New Operations and missions include bringing stability to Afghanistan, assisting Iraq, protecting against terrorism in the Mediterranean and helping the African Union to bring peace to the Darfur region of Sudan.
Current Missions • http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_52060.htm • http://www.nato.int/docu/review/2010/Maritime_Security/Active-Endeavour/EN/index.htm